Sunday, August 19, 2007


Introduction Note from the Author Sri. K Suresh as appearing in Sri Rudra Ghana Patha Book and Pancha Rudra Ghana Patha Book

The Veda

Rig Veda
Yajur Veda
Saama Veda
Atharva Veda

Common to All Vedas

a. Sikshaa
b. Chandas
c. Vyakarana
d. Niruktha
e. Jyotisham
f. Kalpa

Veda Upangas (secondary organs of the Vedas)
Vakhya pathaa
Pada Paathaa
Krama Paathaa
Jata Paathaa
Ghana paathaa
The Vikrithis

Sri Rudra - Yajur Veda

Introduction Note

Benefits of Abhisheka and Rudra Japa

Pancha Rudra- Rig Veda

Introduction Note

The five mukhas (faces) of Lord Siva

The Veda

The term Veda comes from the root 'Vid', to know. The word Veda means knowledge. These are direct intuitional revelations, of the eternal truths that got revealed by itself to the great ancient Rishi (ateendriya mantra drashta) and are held to be entirely superhuman, without any author in particular. The Veda is the glorious pride of the Hindus. They are without beginning and end hence, the Vedas are apaursheya & anaati - not created by humans, and eternal.

Vedas are the basis of Hindu Dharma. They are the most ancient existing scripture of the world. The Hindus rightly believe that they have been revealed by God himself, and are considered the ultimate & valid means of knowledge.

The Vedas are called Sruti because they are transmitted from generation to generation by oral tradition. In our Veda tradition, chanting & learning of these mantras are perfected to unbelievable limits. There is no possibility of error of even half an alphabet. The mantras of Vedas were revealed to different Rishies at different points of time were collected. For easy handling, one of the greatest sages of all times - Sri Veda Vyaasa compiled them into four parts (Rig, yajur, saama & atharvana). Later he gave each of these Vedas to one of his disciples to carry them forward. Rig Veda was given to Paila, Yajur Veda to Vasampaayana, Saama Veda to Jaimini, and the Atharva Veda to Sumantu. It is believed that, Rig Veda had 21 Saakas, Yajus had 101 Saakas, Saama had 1000 Saakas and Atharva Veda had 9 Saakas, totaling 1,131 Saakas. However, only 10 Saakas are available to us today!

Broadly each Veda consists of four parts: (1) the Mantra-samhitaa or hymns, (2) the braahmanaa or explanations of Mantras or rituals, (3) the Aaranyakaas, and (4) the Upanishads.

Rig Veda: Rig is derived from the word 'ric' which literally means 'praise or verse', especially 'a sacred verse recited in praise of a deity. It has 8 Kaandaas (Ashtakaas) and 64 Adhyaayaas or 10 Mandaals (Sections) with 85 Anuvaakaas (sub sections). There are 1028 Sukaas in these Mandaals and in total 397265 aksharaas (Letters). Suktaas are a small group of Mantras, and have their own Devata, Rishies & chandas. Totally there are 10552 Mantras in Rig Veda. The total number of Rishies in Rig Veda is 403. There used to be 21 Saakas of the Rig Veda. There are only two available today. They are 1. Bhaskalaa Saaka 2. Sakalaa Saaka. Rig Veda has 1. kausitakee braahmanaa 2. Sankraayanaa braahmanaa and 3. aitreya Braahmanaa as Braahmanaas and 1. kausitakee Aaranyakaa 2. aitreya Aaranyakaa as Aaranyakaas. 1. kausitakee and 2. aitreya Upanishad belongs to Rig Veda samhitaa. For application, 'Asvalayana Sutra' is followed.

Among the Vedic corpus available to us today, the Rig Veda Samhitaa is the biggest, oldest of all the Vedic Samhitaas, grandest of the Hindus, and the best in the world. Its style, the language and the tone are most beautiful and mysterious. Its priest in yajyaa is called the hotaa / hotree / hotraa:. It comprises of hymns in praise of Agni, indraa, rudraa, asvini, Savitur, suryaa, varunaa, marutaa, somaa, and ripu.

Yajur Veda: Yajur is derived from the word 'yajus', literally 'reverence, veneration or sacrifice'. Though it includes many of the hymns of the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda deviates more from the original text in its collection of the ritual formula for the priests (called Adhvaryu ) to use in the sacrifices, (yajyaa)

The literary value of Yajur Veda is mostly for its prose, which consists of short terse sentences full of meaning and cadence. It is the Veda of Sacrifice or Yajyaa through oblations into the Agni (holy fire). Its deities are the same as the Rig Veda

Yajur Veda had originally 101 Saakas or branches. This Veda is divided into krishna Yajur Veda and Sukla Yajur Veda, meaning black or mixed and white or Pure Yajur Veda.

The White Yajur consists of 40 adhyaayaas (chapters), 303 anuvaakaas (sections) and 1975 kandiyaas. The two popular recensions (Saakas) of the Sukla Yajur Veda are: 1. vaajasaneyee maadyaandineeya Saaka (This school dominates North India just as the taittireeya school in South India.) and 2. kaanva Saaka (40 adhyaayaas (chapters), 328 anuvaakaas (sections) 2086 kandikaas with 29666 padaas); (this Saaka is very rare and pundits affiliated to this school are found inchi kollai of Tanjavore District and later in Tirunelveli, Southern Tamil Nadu) This has Satapatha Braahmanaa as Braahmanam and 1. Isha 2. brahadaaranya as Upanishads.

Sukla Yajus consists of 15 Saakas named vaajasaneyeya - ayaatayaama. Maharishi Sri yaajyavalkya, by his Tapas (Devotion), learned this Veda from suryaa (Sun), and imparted through his diciples in India. Hence, the name 'vaajasaneyeya'.

There is no mixture of Braahmanaa and Mantra in this Veda, hence it is called 'Sukla Yajur Veda or ayaatayaama'. There is a brief note on this in the works of Sri Aadhi Sankaraa and Sayanaachaarya. Its history, has been described in skaandha, bhaagavataa. Srimad Ramayanaa, Srimad Bhagavataa and Srimad Mahabharataa which hinted that Avatara Purusha's Like Sri Rama, Sri Krishna and Sri Kalki followed Kaatyaayanaa sutra and did aupaasanaa. Vyaakyaataas (commentors) clarified that these Avatara Purusha's are Sukla Yajur Vedins.

Out of 15 Saakaas, at present only 1. Kaanvaa and 2. maadyaandineeya Saakaas are in vogue. maadyaandineeya Saakaa is very popular in Maharastra and UP. Whereas Kaanvaa Saaka is popular in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andra, Orissa, and Maharastra. But, the Adyaayana Parampara (Teacher's Tradition) are high in places like Tanjore, Trichy, Chengalpattu, than, any other districts in Tamil Nadu.

At present, this Saaka, originated from Kaanvakulapati Brahma Sri. Chidambara Ghanapati, inchi kollai, Tanjore District and then spread in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is to be noted that, the students (Sisya) who studied under him, are the teachers (Adyapaka's) of Patasala's (School's) in Vaikanallur (Kulitalai) near Trichy, Kancheepuram, Bangalore and Ambattur (Chennai).

The Black Yajur is divided into 7 kaandaas (books) 44 prasnas (chapters) with 651 anuvaakaas. There are 2198 kandikaas (or panjadi comprising fifty words). The krishna Yajur Veda has three Saakas : 1. taittireeya Saaka, (Majority of South Indians are affiliated to this branch/school and is very popular in South India) 2. paaraksutra Saaka, 3. kaathaka Saaka, and 4. maitraayanee Saaka (understand, this is extremely rare, but very few people still exists in and around Nasik, Maharashtra). Majority of the Yajurvedins follow Aapastamba sutraa, few follow the sutraas of bodhaayana, and still very few follow hiranyakesi's (satyaashaadam), bhaaratvaajam, Aagni veshyam, and vaikaanasam sutraas. Its Braahmanaa is taittireeya Braahmanaa. Its Aaranyakaa is taittireeya Aaranyakaa . Its Upanishads are 1. taittireeya 2. kata and 3. maitraayanee.

Saama Veda : 'Saama' means 'peace and or enjoyment'. Saama Veda mantras are with musical notes and was basically meant for singing the mantras known as Saama ghana. Most of the mantras of Saama Veda Samhitaa are found in Rig Veda . The Samhitaa of Saama Veda has two parts - poorva Aarchik & utra Aarchik. The former section has 6 chapters with 650 mantras, and the latter section has 21 chapters with 1225 mantras. Totally this Veda has 1875 mantras. Only 75 verses of the total of 1,875 verses of Saama Veda are not to be found in Rig Veda. The remaining 1,800 verses are essentially the repetitions of Rig Vedic verses . The important distinction however is that they are sung instead of being recited. The Rig Veda deals with knowledge and Saama Veda deals with Upasana, Worship and Dhyanam. In yajyaa the priest is called "udghaataa". The hymns are addressed to indraa, Agni, and somaa.

Saama Veda had originally 1000 Saakas or branches. But at present only three Saakas are in vogue. They are 1. kauthuma (This is traditionally associated with Gujarat and today, it is prevalent in North India, and in Thanjavur, South India). These followers of the kauthuma Saaka may follow the laatyaayana Srouta sutra and/or the gopila grhya sutraa and/or khadira grhya sutraa and draahyaayana sutra. On the other hand, some of Thanjavur kauthumas (a branch of the raanaayaneeyas) follow the draahyaayana sutra, which are associated normally with the raanaayaneeya Saaka. 2. raanaayaneeya Saaka (text are similar to kauthuma Saaka. But, this Saaka is attached to the draahyaayana sutras. This Saaka is very rare and came to know that pundits affiliated to this school are found in northern Karnataka.) 3. Jaimini or talavakaara Saaka (This Saaka exists among the Nambudiri community in Kerala.) Saama Veda has 1.taanya Braahmanaa, 2. Sadvimsa 3. Saama vidhaana 4. Aarseya 5. devataa adyaaya 6. Chantogya 7. samhita upanshad and 8. vamsa Braahmanaa as its Braahmanaas. It has 1. Chaantogya and 2. kena as its Upanishads.

Atharva Veda : Atharva Veda has mantras, those are to be used for various special purposes. The Atharva Veda Samhitaa has two parts. (1) The Atharva & (2) the Aangirasa. Because of these two major sections, this Veda is also called Atharvaangirasa, and in short Atharva Veda . The Other names of this Veda are : 1. brahma Veda 2. angiro 3. brsvaangirasaa 4. ksatra Veda and 5. bhaishangya. This had nine branches or rescensions (navadha Atharvano Veda ): These nine branches are : (1) paipilaada (2) tauda (3) munda (4) saunaka (5) jaajala (6) jalaada (7) brahmaveda (8) devadarsha and (9) chaarana vaidya. Today, only two of the nine branches of Atharva Veda are available to us.They are: 1. paipilaada Saaka (This Saaka was thought to be completely extinct, and was known only through one imperfect manuscript from Kashmir. During 1960s, some scholars were discovered in Orissa, and the paipilaada Samhitaa was edited and published by Shri. D. Bhattacharya. Few Atharvavedin affiliated to this school exist in South India) 2. Saunaka Saaka (a small group of scholars in Saurashtra (Gujarat), Gokarna, (Karnataka), Varanasi, (U.P) and Tamil Nadu). munaka and maandookya are its Upanishads.

"Gopata Braahmanaa" is the Braahmanaa for this Veda. "kausika grhya sutra" is used for its implementation (prayoga) for this Veda . The Samhitaa of this Veda has 20 kaandaa (chapters), 730 suktaas and 5977 mantras. Some prefer to catalog the Atharva Veda Text (Samhitaa )into prapaathaakas (Lessons or lectures ). Under this classification , there are 34 prapaathaakas that house the 5977 verses. In yajyaa the priest is called "brahmaa ", (knows mantras of all Veda s) and has a very important place amongst all Rikvits. Major portion of Atharva Veda is common to Rig Veda.

Common to All Vedas : The subject matter of the whole Veda is divided into karma kaandaa, upaasana kaandaa and Gyaana kaandaa. The Ritual Section or karma kaandaa deals with various sacrifices and rituals. The Worship Section or upaasana kaandaa deals with various kinds of worship or meditation. The Knowledge-Section or Gyaana kaandaa deals the highest level of knowledge.(Aatma tatva saak kshaatkaaram / Aatma anubhavaa) The Mantras and the Braahmanaas constitute karma kaandaa; the Aaranyakaas - upaasana kaandaa; and the Upanishads - Gyaana kaandaa..

Vedanga (parts of Veda ) are the different branches of study that one should undertake to understand Vedas fully. They are:

a. Sikshaa : (Called Nose of Veda ). It provides the rules of phonetics or pronunciation / duration of utterance of each syllable to give matching sound – euphony. The goal is to achieve correct pronounciation and articulation through, aksaraa suddhi (syllable purity); svara suddhi (tonal / pitch purity) and maatraa suddhi (durational purity), balaa (force of articulation), samam (evenness) and santaana: (continuity). Phonetics are most critical in the case of Vedic language, because, a change in sound results in completely different effects. In Sikshaa, there are lots of varieties like 1. paanineeya Sikshaa (Rig), 2. Aatreya Sikshaa (Yajur) 3. vyaali Sikshaa (Rig ) 4. vyaasa Sikshaa (Yajur) 5. Lomasa Sikshaa (Saamam) 6. bhaaradvaaja Sikshaa (Yajur) 7. kaudinya Sikshaa (Yajur) 8. kaala nirnaya Sikshaa (Yajur) 9. paari Sikshaa (Yajur) 10. yaajyavalkiya Sikshaa (Common) 11. vaasishtha Sikshaa (Rig) 12. AAranyaka Sikshaa (Yajur) and so on. svaras are of different types as 1. udaattaa, 2. anudaattaa, 3. svaritaa, 4. pracayaa, 5. ucca taraa (type of udaattaa), 6. sannata taraa (type of anudaattaa), and 7. ekasruti.

b. Chandas - meter (Feet of Veda ) The common names and its number of letters are given in the table:

Sl No. Name of Chandas No.of letters
1 gaayatree 24

2 ushnik 28

3 anushtup 32

4 brhatee 36

5 pankti 40

6 trishtup 44

7 jagatee 48

8 ati jagatee 52

9 Sakvaree 56

10 ati Sakvaree 60

11 ashti 64

12 atyashti 68

13 dhruti 72

14 ati dhruti 76

15 kruti 80

16 prakruti 84

17 Akruti 88

18 vikruti 92

19 sankruti 96

20 abhikruti 100

21 utkruti 104

Each mantra is dedicated to a Devata/Deity, has a specific chandas and has a Rishi who brought it to the world. That is the reason why we touch our head as we recite the name of the Rishi (symbolically placing his feet on our head), touch the nose when we recite the chandas (the guardian for the mantra is meter and so there is no life of the mantra without it; in the same way, there is no life without breath); touch our heart when reciting the name of the devata (to meditate upon the deity in our heart). Pingalacharya provides the grammar for this. Further, this has been classified into Laukikam and Vaidikam.

c. Vyakarana - deals with grammar (Mouth of Veda ) It explains about the noun, verb, gender, singular, dual & plural, timings etc

d. Niruktha - deals with etymology (origin and history of words) (Ears of Veda) Yaska is the author of this.

e. Jyotisham : astronomy (Science of Stars and Planets) (Eyes of Veda ) very helpful to determine the time for performing any rituals or functions and further, to predict the future of any person. The time was calculated as 1. paraarddha kaalam (life of brahmaa ), 2. manvantaram, 3. Yuga, 4. Year, 5. Ayana, 6. ¨atu, 7. Month, 8. Paksha (Fortnight), 9. Week, 10. Day, 11. muhoorttam, 12. naazhigai (24 Minutes) and 13. Seconds. Jyotsha could be classified as 1. Mathematics 2. Jataka (Horoscopes) and 3. Samhitaa (Details). In Jyotisha, Mathematics is very important.. Even in krishna Yajur Veda, ( in 5th and 7th kaandaa ) the maths table from 1 to 1011 was explained in Ashwameda recitals.

Time could be determined as manushyamaanam, devamaanam manvantaram, and Life of brahmaa. Our 12 months (1 year) is equivalent to 1 day for Devas. Hence our 360 years equals to 1 year for Devas.

When we want to calculate the Yuga in years:

Yuga Man years Deva years
kruta/satya yugaa 17,28,000 4,800

tretaa yugaa 12,96,000 3,600

dvaapara yugaa 8,64,000 2,400

kali yugaa 4,32,000 1,200

Total 43,20,000 12,000

Hence chatur yugaa or mahaa yugaa (4 Yugas) equals to 43,20,000 years of ours. At the end of a mahaa yugaa (after 43,20,000 years) there will a universal disaster, where everything will be destroyed by the cosmic fire. Then, a new kruta / satya yugaa will emerge out of the old kali yugaa. The ratios between the Yugas are 4:3:2:1 in terms of duration. With the beginning of a new satya yugaa, the original state of purity is restored, and the cycle begins again with full righteousness, which decreases by one-fourth in tretaa yugaa, by one-half in dvaapara yugaa and by three-fourth in the kali yugaa.

Hindu concept of time is cyclical and is reckoned as the continuum of the day and night of brahmaa, the creator; the day is kalpa (creation) and the night is pralaya (deluge). One day (kalpa) of brahmaa is further subdivided into 1000 mahaa yugaas or 14 manvantaras (or the periods of Manu), and each manvantara comprises 71 mahaa yugaas.

One Kalpa coincides with one Day of brahmaa's life, and when the night comes, the Universe will be reabsorbed (Pralaya) in his divine sleep for equal period (another kalpa). At that time, all the Veda Mantras (Sound) will go back to the Universe and hidden.

Every Kalpa has 1000 cycles of the four Yuga (mahaa yugaa).

4,320,000 x 1,000 = 4,320,000,000 years

Like this, 71 chatur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) makes 1 Manvantara. 14 Manvantaras makes 1 Kalpa (one day or one night) for brahmaa.

4,320,000 x 71 x 14 = 4,294,080,000 years

The last six (1000-71x14) catur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) are necessary to make a kalpa (to have 1000 mahaa yugaa) are distributed among the different Manvantara as Sandhies. Now we attempt to calculate the age of brahmaa : ( all figures are human years)

chatur yugaa 4,320,000 x71

Manvantaram 306,720,000 x14 = 4,294,080,000

Add: 6 chatur yugaas 25,920,000

Kalpam (day) 4,320,000,000

Add: Kalpam (Night) 4,320,000,000

Full Day 8,640,000,000 x360

One year 3,110,400,000,000 x100

Age of brahmaa (100 years)

I understand from others that, next brahmaa is Sri hanumaan. It is not fare to compare our age now!!

The present kali yugaa started 3102 years before the birth of Christ on February 20th at 14 hrs 27 minutes and 30 seconds. At that period also all the planets were housed in one zodiac sign. In this connection Europe's famous astronomer Belly observes this:

"According to astronomical calculations of the Hindus, the present period of the world, Kaliyuga, commenced 3102 years before the Christ on 20th February, at 2 hours 27 minutes and 30 seconds. They say conjunction of planets took place and their table show this conjunction. It was natural to say that a conjunction of planets then took place. This calculation of Veda Pundits is so exactly confirmed by our own astronomical tables that nothing but actual observation could have given so correspondent a result." (Theology of Hindus by Count Bjornstjerna, page 32).

Note that the 'kali yugaa ', although taken to have an aeonic impact upon people's way of life, is nevertheless a fiction used for astrological computation: At the beginning of the Kali epoch the mean places of the 7 planets are assumed to be at the beginning of the sidereal sphere at 0 degrees Aries. By calculating from this epoch the mean positions of Sun, Moon and planets are obtained.

Diurnal motion - daily rising/setting of Sun, Moon, planets, stars; due to daily rotation of Earth from west to east. Movement of Sun eastward by 10 per day relative to background stars, i.e., seasonal change of constellations; due to annual revolution of Earth about Sun;

In surya siddhaantaa, bhaaskaraachaaryaa calculates the time taken for the earth to orbit the sun to 9 decimal places. bhaaskaraachaaryaa = 365.258756484 days. Astronomer W.M. Smart = 365.2564 days. Modern accepted measurement = 365.2596 days. Between bhaaskaraachaaryaa's ancient measurement 1500 years ago and the modern measurement the difference is only 0.00085days. (only 0.0002%)


In a chatur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) the revolutions of the Sun are 4,320,000, of the Moon 57,753,336, of the Earth eastward 1,582,237,500, of Saturn 146,564, of Jupiter 364,224, of Mars 2,296,824 ..etc. This is an extremely accurate ratio (1,582,237,500 / 57,753,336 = 27.3964693572) of Moon revolution about the Earth from the following table:


(from Clarke and Kay) Surya Siddanta

Years in Yuga 4,320,000 4,320,000

Rotations 1,582,237,500 1,582,237,828

Days 1,577,917,500 1,577,917,828

Lunar Orbits 57,753,336* 57,753,336

Synodic Months 53,433,336 53,433,336

Mercury 17,937,920 17,937,060

Venus 7,022,388 7,022,376

Mars 2,296,824 2,296,832

Jupiter 364,224 364,220

Saturn 146,564 146,568

* Shri. Kay notes 57,753,339 lunar orbits rather than 57,753,336 per Shri. Clarke.

In addition to the reckoning of time by yugaas, we have in use two eras used to reckon historical periods: Vikramaa Era starting in 57 BCE; It is on this day 1924 years ago, King Saalivaahanaa of Ujjaini after killing the invading Saaka tribe beyond the river Sindhu, returned successfully to Ujjaini (by early morning hours). Hence the Saalivaahanaa Era (not Saaka Era). The Vikramaa Era (also called Maalavaa Era) begins on Kaarthika Shukla prathama (around October-November). It was started by King Saalivaahanaa's grandfather King vikramaadityaa who too defeated the invading Saaka tribe 2058 years ago & returned to his capital in time for the Deepaavali celebrations. We can see these particulars in our Almanac or Panchanga.

"In surya siddhaantaa all the calculations are in terms of positive integers. The unit of angle, its smallest unit used in this integer environment, is one minute of an arc of which there are 21,600 in a full circle. If a time frame of 21,600 years is selected, then the accuracy of the mean motion of the planets, could be one minute of an arc per year if the period of rotation is specified in terms of the number of rotations made in a time frame. In Rig Veda 1.164.11 it says "The Universe rotates around a wheel with twelve spokes and three centers."

Relating our own body to cosmology, the earth, our physical or planetary body, is sustained by food, our emotional center (Soul) is sustained by breath and our intellectual center (Moon) is sustained by impressions. A respiration consists of two halves, an inhalation and an exhalation. Speech is breath modulated by the physical organism in various ways (depth of breathing, muscle tension, shape of mouth, shape of mental impressions.) The Indian measure is that 10 long syllables make 1 breath. There are smaller subdivisions of time ending with the paramanu (this is related to the time taken to sense an impression). Consistent with this view is the concept that people are, like the real solar system, subject to fluctuations, perturbations and inequalities. The periods are based on the numbers 27, 108, 360 and 21600.

Breath : 21600 breaths per full day (24 hours) 10800 = solar(day), 10800 = lunar(night) hence, 1 breath = 4 seconds (86400 seconds per day /21600 breaths per day = 4 seconds per breath)

Time : 1 naazhigai equals to 24 minutes = 1440 seconds = 360 breaths. 1 solar year = 360 days = 8640 hours. 60 naazhigai = 1 day.

In a horoscope, the placement of Planets, Yoga, Kendra or Square, Trine or Triangle and other issues are derived on this basis, could be established from the following table:

Proportion Arc sectors Degrees-Minutes Aspect/Division

21600/108 200 3d 20m Navamsha

21600/27 800 13d 20m Nakshatra

21600/12 1200 30d Raasi

21600/4 5400 90d Square

21600/3 7200 120d Triangle

21600/2 10800 180d Opposition

21600/1 21600 360d Conjunction

Further, Books written 1. by Sri varaahamihiraa like 'bruhad jaatakam, paraasarahora Saastram, daivajya vallabhaa', 2. by gargaachaariyaa, 'garga horaa' 3. by mantreshvaraa, 'phalateepikaa', 4. by vekatesa daivankar, 'sarvaartta sintaama´i', 5. by satyaa chaaryaa, 'satya jaatakam', 6. by Sukar Rishi 'Sukar naadi' , 7. by kaalidaasaa 'utra kaalaamrutam, jaataka chantrikai', 8. by maha Rishi Jaimini's 'Jaimini sutraa', 9. vaidyanaata deekshatar, 'jaataka paarijaatam', 10. by mahaadevaa, 'jaataka tatvam', 11. by Achudar, native of Kerala 'Deva Keralam known as chandra kalaa naadi, 12. by kumaara svaami Dev ' kumaara svaamyam', 13. by Sapta Rishies namely, atri, agastiyaa, jaimini, konginar, naaradaa, vasistaa, visvaamitraa, - 'sapta Rishi naadi', 14. Dr B V Raman's various books, 15. Rishi pulippaan's various books, 16. Kadalagudi Sri natesha Saastri's various books, 17. The Discoverer of krishnamurthi Paddhadi Sri. K S krishnamurthi 's various books, 18. Sri C G Raajan's various books, 19. paraasaraa Rishi's books like 'horaa, Samhitaa' and many other books will help us to enhance our knowledge in the field of mathematics and astrology. There is no doubt about this.

Veda vyaasa explains the Arithmetics (Ganita) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots are enumerated in the naarada vishu puraanaa. The Sulba sutraas of boudhaayana and Aapastamba sutraas explains the geometric knowledge (rekha-ganita) which describe the techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during various prayoga (the yajyaa.)

boudhaayana's sutraa states: "The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size." which was later popularly known as the Pythagoras theorem. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown. Examples of quadratic equations also appear. Aapastamba's sutraa (an expansion of boudhaayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2, whch is accurate upto five decimal place. He also looked at the problems of squaring a circle, dividing a segment into seven equal parts, and a solution to the general linear equation.

In Jain cosmology, space and time were considered limitless similar to the Veda Upanishad's view. anuyoga dvara sutraa explains about the Infinite numbers, law of indices and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms. Terms like ardaached, trigaached, chaturaached are used to denote log base 2, log base 3 and log base 4 respectively.. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: 1. infinite in one direction, 2. in two directions, 3. in area, 4. infinite everywhere and 5. perpetually infinite. Permutations and combinations are explained in the bhagavati sutraa and in Sathananga sutraa.

Buddhist mathematics was classified either as garnaa (Simple Mathematics) or sankhyan (Higher Mathematics) and classifying the numbers as: sankhyeyaa (countable), asankhyeyaa (uncountable) and anantaa (infinite).

Philosophical formulations concerning sunyaa - i.e. emptiness facilitated by introducing the concept of zero. While the zero (bindu) in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier, algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of brahmaguptaa during 7th Century.

In the Western world, the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle, and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. But in India, almost everything was in vouge including decimal numbers.

It was best stated by French mathematician, Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions."

brahmaguptaa describe the negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to link between trade and mathematical study. Astronomical knowledge - particularly 1. about the tides and the stars was considered very important by trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night and 2. accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops.

Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication.

One of the greatest scientists of the guptaa period - Aaryabhataa (born in 476 AD, Kusumpura, Bihar) correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth, and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses which was appreciated by bhaaskaraa I (born Saurashtra, 6th Century, and the follower of the Asmaka school of science, Nizamabad, Andhra). In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse, Aaryabhataa was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals - i.e. tatkaalika gati to designate the infinitesimal, or near instantaneous motion of the moon, and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. Aaryabhataa's equations were elaborated on by manjulaa (10th Century) and bhaaskaraachaaryaa (12th Century) who derived the differential of the sine function.

Mathematics played a vital role in Aaryabhataa's revolutionary understanding of the solar system. His calculations on pi, (or 22/7) the circumference of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year were remarkable. In making such calculations, he had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before including problems in algebra (beej ganitaa) and trigonometry (trikonmiti).

bhaaskaraa I expanded on the trigonometric equations and pi (or 22/7) provided by Aaryabhataa, and contributed 1. the important formula for calculating the sine function 2. work on indeterminate equations and 3 quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel.

Another important astronomer/mathematician was varaahamihiraa (6th Century, Ujjaini) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to Aaryabhataa's trignometric formula. His works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle.

Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. Yativrsabha's (6th Century) work tiloyapannattee gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.

In the 9th Century, mahaa veeraachaaryaa (Mysore) wrote ganita saara san grahaa, where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by brahmaguptaa)

The leading light of 12th Century Indian mathematics was bhaaskaraachaaryaa who was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjaini. He left several important mathematical texts including the leelaavati, Bijaganita and the siddhaanta siromani, (an astronomical text). He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries, and in his siddhaanta siromani he postulated that the Earth had gravitational force, and mention for the first time the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. In the second part of this treatise, there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and its properties and applications to geography, planetary mean motion, eccentric epicyclical model of the planets, first visibility of the planets, the seasons, the lunar crescent etc. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry and also explains his trigonometric equations: sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b; sin(a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b;

Now, we can understand, the above Mathematical knowledge is necessary to produce an Almanac (Panchanga) which we are using now or to cast a Horoscope.

To render/do the remedy (Pariharam), and to worship the Deity, Planets, Stars to get our desire, Veda, jyotshaa provide details on everything (like Deity, Planets, Stones). Even in taittireeya Samhitaa, 4th kaandaa, 4th Prasna, 10th anuvaakaa gives particulars about Stars and its respective Deities and 11th anuvaakaa gives particulars about Month, Rutu etc. (explained in the Table given below)

Stars Star's Deity Planet Planet's Deity Stones

Aswini Aswini Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Bharani Yama Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Kritika Agni Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Rohini Prajapati Moon Paarvati Pearl

Mrugasirsa Soma Mars Subramanya Coral

Arudra Rudra Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

Punarvasu Adhiti Jupiter DakshinaMoorti, Brahma Topaz

Pushyami Brahaspati Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Aslasha Snake(Sarpa) Mercury Vishnu Emerald

Magha Fore fathers (Pitru's) Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Poorvaphalguni Aryama Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Uthara Bhaga Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Hastha Savita Moon Paarvati Pearl

Chithira Indra Mars Subramanya Coral

Swathi Vayu Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

ViSaaka Indra, Agni Jupiter DakshinaMoorti,Brahma Topaz

Anuradha Mitra Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Jyestha Indra Mercury Vishnu Emerald

Moola Fore fathers (Pitru's) Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Poorva Shada Varuna Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Uthra Shada Vishvedeva Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Abhijit * Brahma

Sravana Vishnu Moon Paarvati Pearl

Dhanishya Vasu Mars Subramanya Coral

Satha Bishak Indra Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

Poorva Bradra One Foot Goat Jupiter DakshinaMoorti, Brahma Topaz

Utra Shada Adiseshan Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Revati Poosha Mercury Vishnu Emerald

* Abhijit Star is mentioned in Veda, but not practised in Astrology.

The vedanga jyotshaa includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the gem-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body ( the head), similarly, the position of Ganita ( mathematics) is the highest amongst all branches of the Veda s and the Shastras."

mahaaveeraachaaryaa (Jain mathematician from Mysore) emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world, cannot be understood without the base of Ganita ( mathematics)".)

As a finance professional and an astrologer, I am also of the view ''Every performance or action shall end with number'' (including Balance Sheet in Commerce / Accounts)

Like this, we can explain and establish the connection between the Veda , the Cosmic world and with individual Horoscope and daily operation of human being through Maths (Ghanita). But due to the time and place constraint, I would like to make a pause on this topic.

f. Kalpa - deals with the procedural aspects of Vedic karmas or Vedic Actions.(Arms of Veda ) Kalpam could be classified into four as 1. Srouta sutraa, 2. gruhya sutraa, 3. dharma sutraa and 4. Sulba sutraa. Kalpa sutraa was written by 1. Aashvalaayanaa, 2. boudhaayanaa, 3. Aapastambaa, 4. satyaashaadhaa, 5. kaatyaayanaa, 6. draahyaayanaa. Gruhya sutraa (meant for smaartta karmaa) clarifies about 1. garbhaa dhaanaa 2. naamakarmaa 3. upanishkramanaa, 4. annapraasanaa, 5. karna vedhanaa, 6. chaulaa 7. upanayanaa, 8. vedavrataa, 9. vivaaha (Marriage) and 10. pitru medha samskaaraa (last rituals) etc. Srouta sutraa (meant for havir yajyaa) clarifies on 1. agniyaadheyaa, 2. agnihotraa, 3. darsa purnamaasau, 4. Aagrayanaa, 5. Chaaturmaasyaa, 6. niruda pasubandhaa, 7. sautraamani. Further it clarifies on yajyaa based on soma samstas like 1. agnishtomaa, 2. atyagnishtomaa, 3. ukthyaa, 4. Shodasee, 5. vaajapeyam, 6. atiraatraa, 7. aptoryaamaa etc. Dharma sutraa provides particulars on 1. varnaasrama dharmaa (Proof of Varnashrama), 2. niyamaa (control), 3. Aapaddharmaa, (relaxation) and 4. praayacittaa, (remedy). Sulba sutraa explains about the yajya vedi, kundaa, mandaapaa, Vessels, measurement of samit & darbhaa, and citi which are required to perform above Karma.

Veda Upangas (secondary organs of the Vedas) :

1. Mimamsa, deals with the action and knowledge based on interpretations of the Vedic texts

2. Nyaya, deals with logic

3. Purana deal with mythology and serve as a magnifying glass of the Vedic Injunctions, and

4. Dharma Sastra deals with the Vedic codes of conduct.

These fourteen texts (Veda -4, Vedanga -6 and Veda Upanga -4) are glorified as vidyasthanas - the house of true knowledge and wisdom.

All the Vedas provide the same knowledge to experience the Supreme through different paths.

a. The Rig Vedi would approach this goal through prayer and intellectual pursuits.

b. The Yajur Vedi through Yajyaa and invocation of Agni to carry the message of the hymns to the Supreme.

c. The Saama Vedi through musical renderings of the hymns

d. The Atharva Vedi through tantra or other rituals.

The Vedas promote and accept all forms of religious practice in the pursuit of understanding and merging with the Supreme. Hence it is highly secular and tolerant in its teachings and/or preaching.

Without resort to in writing, our forefathers had devised many ways and different methods to keep it error free and to recite with correct pronunciation of letters/ words, correct duration for utterance of letters/ words and correct accent/ modulation of letters by applying numerous safeguards.

How much time it should take to utter each word is indicated by resort to the notation by "maatraa" - the time it takes to pronounce a short vowel. How to regulate breathing so that the vibrations can occur at what part of the body to give birth to the pure word and sound is also laid down in the Vedanga Sikshaa. The taittireeya Upanishad, for e.g., begins with Sikshaa thus:

Seekshaam Vyakyaa syaamah - Varna Swarah - Maatraa balam - Saama Santaanah

Sikshaadeals with Varna, Svaraa, Maatraa, Strength, Saamaa and Santaanaa

Our Rishies prescribed several fool-proof methods to correctly recite the Veda mantra in various patterns and combinations known as vakhyaa, padaa, kramaa, jataa, maalaa, Sikhaa, rekhaa, dhvajaa, dandaa, rathaa and ghanaa :

Vakhya pathaa or Samhitaa pathaa is to recite the mantras in a sentence straight. When mantras come in sentences, some of the words therein have to be conjoined in chanting.

Pada Paathaa : To recite the Veda mantras, word by word, instead of joining the words. This gives the student of the Vedas, the knowledge of each word in a sentence.

Krama Paathaa : In Krama Pathaa, the first word of the mantra is added to the second, the second to the third, the third to the fourth and so on, until the whole sentence of the mantras is completed. The order of words will be 1-2 ; 2-3 ; 3-4 ; 4-5 and so on. This helps the students to understand changes occuring in swara in such a combination. The person who is well versed in reciting the Krama Paathaa is known as "Krama Vit" ( like Veda vit) When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for Krama Paathaa :

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Krama Turn (T) number (T1 to n-1)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1) ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn ;

Hence General Combination for Krama Paathaa is :

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 1, and Max No. of Turn < n (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of Krama Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

Jata Paathaa : In jata Paathaa, the first two words are first recited together and then the words are recited in a reverse order and then again in the original order. Hence, Krama + Inverse of Krama + Krama = jataa. The order will be 1-2-2-1-1-2, 2-3-3-2-2-3, 3-4-4-3-3-4, 4-5-5-4-4-5 and so on. It is to be noted, there all six padas have to be recited together with proper sandhi (junction) In jata Paathaa, there will be 5 sandhies. When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for jata Paathaa :

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Jata Turn (T) number (T1 to n-1)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2, P2, P1, P1, P2 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3, P3, P2, P2, P3 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1) ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn ; **

Hence General Combination for jata Paathaa is :

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 1, and Max No. of Turn < n (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of jata Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

Ghana paathaa : This is one of the most popular form of recitations and requires years of learning and practice by the student. A scholar proficient in recitation in this format is honored as Ghana paathi. In Ghana Paathaa the combination will be: 1-2-2-1-1-2-3-3-2-1-1-2-3

2-3-3-2-2-3-4-4-3-2-2-3-4, 3-4-4-3-3-4-5-5-4-3-3-4-5 and so on till last pada ends in that sentence. Hence, jataa + 3rd Padaa + Inverse of 3 Padaas + 3 Padaas in Straight way = Ghana Paathaa. It is to be noted, there all 13 padas have to be recited together with proper sandhi (junction) In Ghana Paathaa, there will be 12 sandhies. When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for Ghana Paathaa:

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Ghana Turn (T) number (T1 to n-2)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2, P2, P1, P1, P2, P3, P3, P2, P1, P1, P2, P3 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3, P3, P2, P2, P3, P4, P4, P3, P2, P2, P3, P4 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn **

Hence General Combination for Ghana Paathaa is :

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 2, and Max No. of Turn < n-1 (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of Ghana Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

When a sentence has more than 4 words (Padaas), then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 10 times and last but one 11 times, and last padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence). The rest of padaas (i e from 3rd padaa to last but two will repeat for 13 times)

** We could see, even if a sentence has any number of padaa, for last two padaas, the Ghana is as same as Jataa.

When a sentence has 4 Padaas, then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 10 times, 3rd Padaa 11 times and the last (4th) Padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence).

When a sentence has 3 Padaas, then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 8 times, and the last (3rd) Padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence).

When a sentence has only 2 padaas, then it is like Jataa Paathaa only.

When we listen to a Ghanapaathi reciting Vedas in Ghana form, we note that he repeats padaas in various ways, back and forth and in different patterns. This would be pleasant to the ears and creates a sense of happiness within. It would seem that the natural splendor of the Veda mantras is heightened, as it were. We can now appreciate the rigor, a Ghanapaathi has to go through in his education to learn, by heart, the thousands of mantras, to be able to recite in Ghana form.

The Samhita Paathaa and Pada Paathaa are called Prakrithi (or natural) Paathaas, as the words of the mantras occur in normal sequence. The rest are called Vikrithi (or artificial and not natural) Paathaas. In Krama, although the words do not occur in the natural order of one, two and three, since they do not revert like one after two and two after three, it cannot be called fully Vikrithi.

The Vikrithis are eight in number:

jataa maalaa sikhaa rekhaa dhvajo dando ratho ghana :

ashtau vikrtaya : proktaa ; kramapoorvaa maharshibhi :

jataa, maalaa, sikhaa, rekhaa, dhvaa dandaa, rathaa, ghanaa

Two types of maalaa (garland) exist: (a) krama maalaa and (b) pusha maalaa. This is similar to krama paathaa in that two-word units with the characteristic overlapping are the foundation. Sikaa (top knot) is similar to jataa except that, third word will be combined at the end of jataa. Recitations in rekhaa (row), dhvajaa (flag), dandaa (Rod), and rathaa (chariot) are more complex and the learner/reader should get advice from pundits.

Further, there are three types of rathaa, namely, dvichakro (two wheels), trichakro (three wheels) and chatuschakro (4 wheels). Each wheel corresponds to a part of a verse (Rik) of the text.

By repeating the words in manifold ways, the correct tally of the words was also kept which naturally ensure the purity of the texts. It is also believed that higher merits (punya) accompany greater complexities in chanting – for example, a Ghana recitation is several orders higher in merit (infinite) than jataa recitation,(1000 units) which is higher in merit than krama recitation (4 times), Padaa recitation 2 times the punya (or merit or phala) of Samhitaa recitation.

Sri Rudra

Introduction Note:

veda meka gunam japtvaa tadahnaiva visudhyati

Rudraikaa dasineem japtvaa tatkshanaa deva sudhyati

By reciting Veda once, he becomes pure on that day. But by reciting Rudra the very next moment he gets purified.

Sri Rudra, also called Sata Rudreeyam, is considered an Upanishad, one of 108 Upanishads. It is made up of two hymns, called Namakaa and Chamakaa. In the namakaa hymn, every verse begins with "namo" or "salutation". In the camaka hymn, every verse contains the phrases "chame ", meaning ‘and me’.

Sri Rudra occurs in the middle of the taittireeya samhitaa of Sri krishna yajur Veda with total of 169 mantraas in the 4th kandaa, 5th Prasna, in 11 Anuvakas is always followed by the 11 anuvaakaas of Chamakaa found in the 7th Prasna in 4th kaandaa. Many times salutations are offered in Sri Rudra and God is always pleased with repeated namaskaaraas. An analysis of Pada Paathaa of 11 anuvaakaas containing 1234 Padas are given in a separate table showing most repeated Pada and its occurrence in each anuvaakaas. Rudra in these hymns is not a sectarian deity, but the supreme Lord in several forms enlightening, His omnipresence, omnipotence, omniscience and the Lord of evolution who continuously guides the universe from one level of perfection to the higher one.

It is the only hymn of its kind in the religious literature of the entire world which focuses on the idea of God, not only associated with the ideas of pleasant and good, but also with the idea of dread and destruction. i.e., that the God permeates everything in manifestation, including aspects deemed not ethical by the purists and fault-finders.

Various meanings are given to Rudra, derived from the meanings of its roots namely "ru", to cry or to teach, "rud", to make a person weep, and "dra" to flow. Hence Rudra is considered as a deity who teaches the supreme knowledge to all; another meaning is, he whose energy flows in everything.

Sri Rudra is a solution or remedy for removal of the five mahaa patakaa (sins). Sri Rudram is great because it contains the holiest of the holy panchaaksharaa (five letter) Mantraa "Nama : Sivaya " Thus Rudram and Chamakam leads one from Sakamaa to Nishkaamaa. Rudra is (Siva), Agni Swarupa. It is stated that people desirous of all auspicious things have to worship the Agni Svarupa Rudra through Japa, Homa, Abhiseka and Archana.

By watering the tree at the base of the trunk all the parts of the tree including branches, leaves, fruits etc are strengthened. In the same way by worshipping Siva (1) all his related Devas will be pleased and one will get both the earthly and heavenly benefits including liberation. (2) all the evil manifestations in the neighbourhood and in the village premises will be driven of, (3) all worries/ sorrows will be removed in the entire area.

Vedas, the source of learning is supreme. Next is Rudra Ekadasi in Vedas. “Nama : Sivaya” in Rudram is supreme and in this, the two letter "Siva" is par excellence. When Rudra is recited 121 times (112) it is "Rudra Ekadasi", 1331 times (113) it is "Mahaa Rudra", 14641 times (114) it is "Ati Rudra".

Benefits of Abhisheka and Rudra Japa

Rudra is to be repeated after performing the initial Sankalpa, Puja, Nyasa, Anga. Panchamruta snana and Dhyana. The Benefits of Rudra Japa are shown below:

No.of Japa Benefits of Japa

1 Rudra Freedom from Bala arishta ( Childhood diseases)

3 Rudra Freedom from imminent difficulties with which one is faced.

5 Rudra Freedom from the evil effects of certain planets occupying unfavourable positions.

7 Rudra Freedom from great fear.

9 Rudra The fruit of one Vajapeya sacrifice; and also attainment of peace of mind.

11 Rudra Getting the favour of kings and great wealth.

33 Rudra Attainment of wishes for objects and having no enemies.

77 Rudra Enjoyment of great happiness.

99 Rudra Attainment of son, grandson, wealth, grain, Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha and freedom from death.

1 Maha Rudra Attainment of the favour of kings and becoming the Lord of great wealth.

3 Maha Rudra Fulfilment of impossible tasks.

5 MahaRudra Acquirement of vast lands.

7 Maha Rudra Attainment of the seven worlds.

9 Maha Rudra Freedom from births and deaths.

1 AtiRudra Becoming God.

Materials for Abhisheka: Pure water, milk, sugarcane juice, ghee, honey, waters of sacred rivers, sea water.

For getting rain, Abhisheka should be done with pure water. For freedom from diseases, and for begetting a son, Abhisheka should be done with milk. If Abhisheka is done with milk, even a barren woman begets children. The person also attains plenty of cows. If Abhisheka is done with Koorcha (with darba) water, one becomes free from all diseases. He who desires wealth, should perform Abhisheka with ghee, honey and sugarcane juice. He who desires Moksha, should do Abhisheka with sacred waters.

This book provides samhita, Pada and Ghana Paathaa of Shri Rudra. (Kindly read the note, about the Book). I will be much obliged to the readers, for their valuable feed back, in rectifying the book, in case they find any errors. Though utmost care has been taken during preparation, I sincerely regret for any errors, that might have occurred or appearing in this book, and request the readers not to consider it seriously with their nobility.

Those who are learning with the help of this book, could approach the Vedic scholars for correct pronounciation, maatraa, svaraa etc. It is important to note, learning through Guru (teacher) with due respect would be permanent and good to us, as advised by our forefathers.

By learning Vedas, one will be able to discriminate between the permanent and the impermanent. Behold the Self in all beings, in all objects. To realise, that the names and forms are illusory. Fix the mind on the Self when at work. This is the essence of the teachings of the Vedas. Put these things in practice in the daily battle of life. You will shine as a dynamic person /Yogi or even a Jeevanmukta. There is no doubt about this. Good Luck.

yo rudro - agnau yo - apsuya oshadheeshu yo rudro visvaa bhuvanaa vivesa tasmai rudraaya namo - astu

We bow to Sri Rudra who is present in fire, in water, in trees and plants and pervaded in the entire universe.

Pancha Rudra

Introduction Note:

Pancha Rudra is a collection of hymns on Rudra from various parts of Rig Veda. Generally the hymns of the Rig Veda praise the gods and ask them for worldly benefits such as wealth, health, long life, protection, and victory etc. Like this even Pancha Rudra Mantra asks Rudra for all benefits required by any human being. Unlike Sri Rudra from taittireeya samhitaa of Sri krishna Yajur Veda which are continuous and from particular kaandaa (4th) and Particular Prasna (5th) etc, Pancha Rudra hymns (consists of 5 suktaas) are taken from different ashtakaa, adhyaayaa etc. which could be seen from a separate table given to the readers for their appreciation. Apart from this, some Mantras has 'Rudra" as Padaas, and are also recited as a custom which form part of Pancha Rudra are also included in this book. Pancha Rudra represent the five faces of Rudra (Siva):

The five mukhas (faces) of Lord Siva are -

(1) Sadyojatam (West); (2) vaamadevam (North); (3) aghora (South); (4) tatpurusha (East) and (5) Eesaana (Oordvaa - looking up).

Reciting Rig Veda Ghana would be melodious to ears and please God to arrive at the place of Recitation. Hence, normally Rig Vedic Pundit will chant mantras first in all occasions including yagyas.

It was my long desire to provide Ghana Paathaa in script form to people, who, either did not have opportunity to pursue formal Vedic studies or has not reached Vikruti Paathaa during their studies, but have enthusiasm to recite some part of Ghana paathaa. Now a days, finding Rig Vedic Ghanapathies is a very difficult task due to its enormous portion in Samhita itself, and different kinds of rules (Lakshanaa) for Vikruti Paathaa text. Hence to become Ghanapathi in this Veda would take more years than other Veda Saakas.

I hope this book will be a guide to the readers to understand the concept of Ghana and its Sandhi. Moreover, few Mantras (Riks) in Pancha Rudram and Sri Rudram are also common, hence, the readers would be able to appreciate the difference in pronounciation of the same text in different Saakas.

This book provides samhita, Pada and Ghana Paathaa of Pancha Rudram. (Kindly read the note, about the Book).

ayam mey hasto bhagavaa nayam mey bhaga vattara :

ayam mey visva bhesha joyam sivabhi marshana :

This, my hand is God. Is it? No, No, better than God. Why? This is Medicine to me and to all living being because, this hand is worshiping God to get Liberation.

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