Sunday, August 19, 2007

Ancient Vaishnav Temples History

As holy as Tirumala

NESTLING IN the obscure and remote village of Akkur in Thiruvannamalai district, 20 km from Kanchipuram on the road leading to Vandavasi, is the Ambujavalli Nayikaa Samedha Lakshmi Narayana temple, small but beautiful. The ancient temple may not attract devotees from far and wide to its precincts daily, yet it has its own unique features. The temple was constructed roughly 700 years ago, with the efforts taken by Doddacharya, one of the most respected savants in Akkur at that time. It is believed that the Lord appeared in his dream asking him to construct a temple. At Akkur, which derives its name from the phrase, `aru oor', meaning six villages, he constructed two temples, devoted to both Vishnu and Siva. Here, he ran into difficulties. Despite the construction of the temple, they did not have the idol of the presiding deity to be installed. Doddacharya, guided by the voice of the Divine, went to Thumbarkonai in search of the vigraha and located it from near a snake pit adjacent to a lake. Incidentally, it is believed that idols for most of the temples in this region were all taken from Thumbarkonai. The temple is very small and apart from the sanctum sanctorum, there are only a couple of other shrines dedicated to Andal and Ambujavalli Thayar. In the sanctum sanctorum, Vishnu, facing the East can be seen in a seated position with Mahalakshmi seated on his left thigh, not a common posture. There are the Hanumantha and Sesha vaahanams, on which the different utsava idols are taken in a procession round the temple. The idol of Kannan in the Kalinga Nardhana pose (the serpent, however, is not visible) with four arms holding the sangu and chakra, is unique, it is said. It is said that according to legend, worship at this temple is equivalent to visiting the shrine of Balaji at Tirumala.

Five Lords of a hill temple

THIS IS a temple with a difference. Located at Avaniyapuram, 25 km from Wandavasi, en route Arani and Cheyyar Dam in North Arcot District, it is a hill abode of two deities. One has to climb 70 steps to reach the first deity, Lord Narasimha, and ascend another 114 to have a darshan of Lord Venkateswara. (Not actually a difficult task compared to Sholingur or the Rock Fort Uchi Pillaiyar of Tiruchi.)
At Avaniyapuram, Lord Narasimha is found in a small cave (technically known as kudavarai koil). A three-tier Rajagopuram welcomes beckons one with its grace and grandeur. We first pay obeisance to Anjaneya before entering the shrine of Lord Narasimha. There is Yoga Narasimha in the same hill at a higher altitude where Lord Venkateswara is housed. Here Lord Narasimha is in a sitting posture, Mahalakshmi Thayar seated on his left thigh. His left arm is around His Consort and His right hand is in abyaha hasta position. His upper hands are holding the chakra and the conch. The unique feature in this temple is that Mahalakshmi Thayar has the face of a lioness. The utsava idol of Lord Narasimha also has the face of a lion. He has four hands and is in standing position flanked on either side by Sri Devi and Bhoo Devi. Besides there is a tiny Narasimha Moorthy in the shrine making it three images of the deity.

There is a separate shrine for Alarmelmangai Thayar near the Narasimha temple. Lord Venkateswara is atop at the hill. There are five Narasimha moorthies in all looking alike next to the Thayar sannidhi. Thus we have eight Narasimha idols and it makes a total of nine including the Yoga Narasimha atop the hill. We also find idols of Adhi Sesha and Kalinga Nardana Krishna in Pancha Narasimhar sannidhi. The utsava moorthy of Lord Venkateswara blesses us in an astonishing position in the Narasimha Sannidhi itself.

Now we proceed to the abode of Lord Venkateswara at the top. We find Lord Srinivasa standing armed with chakra and conch. There is a separate cave like enclosure in the prahara of Lord Venkateswara where we see Lord Varadaraja and Perundevi Thayar. Lord Ranganatha is seen on His serpentine bed with Ranganayaki Thayar. Yoga Narasimha is in a sitting position along with Amirdavalli Thayar. Thus we see all the main pancha divya desa moorthies — Kanchi, Srirangam, Sholingur, Tirumala and Ahobilam. Avani means lion and the Lord is said to have obliged Brigu Maharishi by appearing before him in the forms of five divya desa deities.

The temple is believed to have been built during the Pallava regime. Popular festivals here are Srijayanti, Deepavali and Vaikunta Ekadasi. Lord Venkateswara Brahmotsavam is celebrated on a very grand scale in the Tamil month of Purattasi and Lord Narasimha has his parivettai utsavam in Panguni. It is heartening to note that all the shrines in the hill temple are well maintained, a testimony to the grace of Lord Narasimha and Venkateswara.

THE LORD Lakshmi Nrisimha Temple, situated off the NH-45 opposite Ford Car Factory at Maraimalai Nagar, is 50 km from Chennai. Though the temple was constructed in the 1990s, the deity enshrined here has an ancient history. The Lakshmi Nrisimhaswami Moolavar idol, which is the presiding deity of this temple, was excavated in the presence of the then District Collector of Chingleput and the Archaeological authorities in 1990. It is estimated to be about 1,300 years old, probably of the Pallava era. Lord Nrisimha is believed to have appeared in the dream of the temple priest Srinivasa Ragavan and his wife Choodamani Ammal and given directions to the place of his presence underground. According to them, the deity was worshipped by Viswamitra before he turned a sage, when he was well-known as King Kowsika, which dates back to Thretha Yuga. The temple, constructed by the priest and his wife, now stands on a four-ground plot at Vivekananda Nagar, Maraimalai Nagar. Built with the help of their resources and contributions from a few devotees, the temple is in perfect accordance with the Agama Sastras as dictated by Brigu Muni, a sage of the Dwapara Yuga. The basement of the temple has 248 chakras on which the Moolasthanam of the Lord, Sathyagnana Perumal and His Consort, Anandavalli Thayar, has been built, along with the Ardhamandapam, the one immediately around the Moolasthanam. True to the names, the deities are a personification of true knowledge and bliss. The devotees' prayers are answered instantly, it is believed, on visiting the temple. Maraimalai Nagar is well connected both by road and rail. Buses and trains plying from Tambaram to Chingleput stop at this point.

Directed by divine command
THE PADMAVATHI Samedha Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple at Keelkattalai is rather unique for the simple reason that devotees have been directed by divine command in implementing certain tasks. The temple at 1A, Rajendra Nagar, (Ph: 22478640)closer to Keelkattalai bus terminus, has shrines for Padmavathi Thayar, Sri Rama, Sri Sudarsanar and Sri Narasimhar along with Sri Ganesa. The local aasthikas of Keelkattalai had formed Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Parayana Mandali and the group has been chanting Vishnu Sahasranamam on Sundays. One of the devotees had a dream in which Lord Srinivasa instructed her to donate the vacant site she owned for constructing a temple for Him

Anjaneya unique in many ways

TWO DECADES ago, Rajamani Bhattachar, a native of Tirunelveli, brought up in Vaikanasa agama tradition and an upasaka of the Vayukumara, was blessed by Haridas Giri Swami and he was presented with the idols of Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Anjaneya and a Shadchakra Saligrama at Thennangur. The Swami had made an apocalyptic statement that the votary would build a shrine for Anjaneya. Two years ago, a divine call directed him to devote his entire time and energy to construct a temple for Anjaneya at the spot indicated in his dream, at Peelamedu in Coimbatore. A sense of fulfilment can be seen on his placid countenance on completion of the sacred task. Located at a spacious plot of ground tucked a few metres away from Coimbatore on the Coimbatore-Avinashi highway, near ESSO bus stop (near Suguna Kalyanamandapam) the Ashtamsa Sri Varada Anjaneya is endued with eight special features. Hence its uniqueness in standing apart from other temples dedicated to the Anjaniputhra. Normally Hanuman is portrayed with His folded hands praying to Sri Ramachandra. But, the gomukhi-structured idol of the deity here, in Peelamedu facing west and measuring eight feet is of a different kind. The Lord's abhaya hastha (right hand) removes fear while the left hand with gadha destroys not only the five passions of lust, anger, greed, infatuation and jealousy afflicting the human kind but the external enemies as well. The face turned towards the Sanjivi hill in the western ghats bestows on the devotees a long and healthy life free of ailments. His legs pointing to the south wards off unexpected calamities like death. It is a common sight to see that the Lord's tail is hidden behind His back. But, here, the devotees can have a full view of it. It is said that the nine planets inhere the tail and so paying obeisance to the tail rids one of the malefic effects of the navagrahas. Obeisance to the tail The tail directed towards the north endows the devotee with wealth and prosperity. The Lord manifests here amid a Siva linga meaning that praying to Hanuman is equal to worshipping Siva. Goddess Lakshmi resides in the right palm of the deity to grant all-round prosperity to the worshippers. The Lord's eyes representing the sun and the moon radiate brilliance during the day and the coolness of the moon during the evening. A shadchakra saligramam adorns the crown. The installation ceremony and Kumbhabishekam of the temple was held on February 9, 2004. Since then, the town has been experiencing continuous showers bringing relief to the farmers in the district and the residents of the city. The temple has been attracting huge crowds all these days. During the last Tamil New Year's day, an offering of 10,008 fruits was made to the deity. Raja Maruthi alankaram, senthoor kaappu, vennai kaappu and vadamala offering are the regular sevas here on Saturdays in the Tamil month of Purattasi. Muthangi and Pushpangi sevas are the other offerings given to the Lord here. Frequent buses ply from various parts of the city to Kovai Medical Hospital. Getting down at ESSO bus stop, opposite Suguna Kalyanamandapam, devotees can reach the shrine easily.

A dream that led to Devadanam

TAMIL NADU is a land that abounds in temples. For the hundreds that are well known, there are an equal number of temples that lie in total anonymity, despite their erstwhile grandeur. One such is the many-centuries-old Ranganatha temple in Devadanam village, Ponneri taluk, Tiruvallur. A good 90-minute drive from the city of Chennai takes us to this little village, beyond Minjur. Saroja Sadasivam, from a leading business house here, had a vivid dream in 1983. She dreamt of a supine Ranganatha Swamy in a derelict temple, totally neglected, beseeching her for attention. The eighteen and a half feet stone idol, lying on a giant Adiseshan, was actually sweating copiously in her dream, telling her that it had had no oil application for very many years, and so could not bear the heat. From the very next day she began the search for this temple, and in the process, visited scores of them. Two years later, on a chance suggestion, she visited Devadanam, and found the then undeveloped village and temple to be the one in her vision. The deity was all covered in dirt, and the temple completely weed-ridden, and broken down. From then, till now, almost 20 years later, constant effort and a great deal of money has been spent, with the temple finally ready for Kumbabhishekham on May 23. The Lord has a `padi' or measure under His head, almost like a pillow, with His right hand placed over it. This is to measure the returns from the huge acreage belonging to the temple, says the priest, giving a clear idea of the power enjoyed by this temple centuries ago. Brahma, Sri Devi and Bhoo Devi, along with Tumburu and Anjaneya complete the stone idols in the sanctum sanctorum. The Lord has a perfectly chiselled face, with flaring nostrils. Ancient panchaloha utsavamurti idols include the Chakrathazhwar. Abishekham is done only for the small stone figure of Ranganatha, with the moolavar having `thaila kaapu' (anointment with oil). Vaikunta ekadesi is of special significance. Small shrines house a beautiful Lakshmi (Ranganayaki) and a graceful standing Andal. A separate shrine for Chakrathazhwar is getting ready. The entrance houses Garuda, near the newly installed `Dwajasthambam,' which cost about Rs. 2 lakhs. According to an elderly village resident, about 60 years ago, this temple was popular with regular worship and festivals conducted. He recalls even `devadasis 'dancing on special days, both in procession and at the temple. It is said that the Brahmins here had been ill-treated and their homes burnt, leading to the consequent dereliction of the temple. The time has now come for this deity, said to be one of the largest idols in Tamil Nadu, to be active again.

In need of attention ELANAGAR IS in Uthiramerur taluk, 25 kilometres from Kanchipuram and 100 kilometres from Chennai. Situated on the Vandavasi-Cheiyyar route, this village is famous because Sri Srinivasa Perumal is believed to have come into existence here more than 800 years ago, by the efforts of the Sadamarshana Gothram's dynasty during 1212 A.D. A Sri Vaishnavite, Thatha Desikan, son of Sri Vishnu Chittar of the Gettam family, learned all the agamas and sastras from his father. He performed Theertha Kainkaryam to Lord Srinivasa of Tirupati, fetched water daily from the Akasa Gangai and performed abishekam and other pujas. One day, when he was returning home after finishing his daily routine, a thirsty Yadhava asked for some water. Thatha Desikan gave him some water to drink and returned to Akasa Gangai to fetch fresh water for puja. And the Yadhav appeared again, and again, and the third time round, the old man fell down tired and became unconscious. The Yadhava, who was none other than the Lord of Tirumala, appeared in His original form, and blessed him. The Lord then asked him to construct five temples for Him with His consorts Sridevi and Bhoodevi in five villages, namely, Paiyoor, Elanagar, Karumbur, Nattery and Vilankkuppam. He also blessed the old man with five children who He said would establish five agraharams in these villages and look after the temples and perform pujas. And Thatha Desikan and the members of his family followed the instructions of the Lord. Gettam Kannamachari, predecessor of Thatha Desikan, now residing at Mylapore, has performed pujas in this temple for the past 15 years. He used to visit this temple every morning and find a snake sleeping at the entrance. When the Bhattacharya clapped his hands the snake gave way for him to perform the morning puja. And people say it continues even now. There is a big snake hill in the midst of Velankadu and the villagers worship it even today. The present temple at Elanagar has been constructed by the villagers and pujas have been performed according to Agama Sastra. But now, the temple is in a dilapidated state, even though Narasimhan and his son Parthasarathy conduct Oru Kala Puja. A person belonging to Srivatsa Gothram visited this temple recently and decided to renovate it. He has started a trust in the name of Elanagar Perumal Koil. Devotees who wish to contribute towards this renovation project and Kumbabishekam may send in their donations in the form of cheque drawn in favour of Elanagar Perumal Koil Trust to: Prakash Flats, New No. 14/2, Old No. 26/2, Giri Street, West Mambalam, Chennai - 600 033 (Ph: 24742282).

Reviving the glory of Pelapur temple

PELAPUR, FIVE km from Chengalpattu railway station, has an ancient temple on the banks of Palar River, known in times of yore as Ksheera Nadhi. According to records, it witnessed great religious activity during the rule of King Sadasivaraya of the Vijayanagar dynasty. The original name of the place was Palapura, according to a copper plate of the Vijayanagar period, which gives its boundaries as Parankusapuram in the north, Kavanuru in the south, Thirumeluru in the west and Vichuru in the east. Pelapur, then situated in the Padaiveedu region, was given as a tax-free gift to Brahmins, who were experts in the study of Sanskrit and Tamil Vedas (Ubhaya Vedas). Their names were, however not mentioned in the copper plate, which recorded the gift in the Saka year 1467 (1542 A.D.) with royal insignia. The gift included the entire village with "Nidhi-nikshepa-siddhi-jala" (treasure, groves, lakes, tanks etc). It was around this time that idols of Sri Rama, Sita and Lakshmana were installed in the temple originally dedicated to Lord Keerthinarayana. For over four centuries the villagers offered worship to the two deities — Keerthinarayana and Kodandarama. However in course of time, due to land reforms and other exigencies, the residents of the village migrated to nearby cities and this led to the neglect of the temple. The idol of Keerthinarayana was almost forgotten and the temple festivals shrank to the celebration of only the Ramanavami Festival. The descendants of the original inhabitants however made it a point to be present in the village for the Garudasevai and Hanumantha Vahanam days of the festival. The temple also came to be popularly mentioned as Kodanda Rama Temple. A divine directive to one of the residents sought the construction of separate shrines for Lord Keerthinarayana and Lord Kodanda Rama. The Balalayam was set up on December 15, 1999. Meanwhile a Sivalingam was found half-buried in Palar River near the temple. After the construction of separate shrines for Keerthinarayana and Kodanda Ramar, the Samprokshanam was performed in the first week of July 2001. A third shrine to house the Sivalingam, called Vasishteswarar, was also constructed, all at a cost of Rs. 9 lakhs, and the Mahakumbabishekam for the Siva shrine was performed two months before the Samprokshanam in the Perumal Temples. Eyewitnesses recount how the idol of Keerthinarayana could not be moved till an old serpent stirred out of its pedestal and inched its way to disappear harmlessly. The festivals were revived for the presiding deity as well as for Andal, Nammazhwar, Kulasekara Azhwar, Thirumangai Azhwar, Ramanuja and Manavalamamunigal after the Samprokshanam was performed. Besides these the Navaratri, Dhanurmasam festival and Samvatsarotsavam were conducted for Keerthinarayana Perumal in the month of Aani for five days. Divyaprabanda Seva and Upanishad recitals were the main features of all the festivals. People hailing from Pelapur and now residing in Chennai, Kanchipuram and other places, make it a point to be present during the festival. It has been proposed to build a new mandapam to interlink the three shrines, with the existing but dilapidated granite mandapam, to ensure greater safety and also provide congregational space for the devotees. It is also planned to renovate the Thirumadaippalli (kitchen) and vahana mandapam and to construct a compound wall around the temple, which existed in the past but has been destroyed now. Contributions may be sent to Keerthinarayana-Kodandarama Sabha Trust, 30, Hanumantharayan Koil Street, Triplicane, Chennai-600005.

Triad of sacred spots
CLOSE TO Thiruputkuzhi, near Kanchipuram, on the Chennai-Vellore road, is Thiruparkadal. The place is famous for its twin temples, where the Lord is seen in lying and standing postures. These two temples, along with Thirupputkuzhi, where the Lord is enshrined in a sitting posture, make a triad of sacred spots. The temples are agog with activity only during Vaikunta Ekadasi when thousands of people visit them for worship. On other days they are forlorn places. The two temples are situated very close to each other with a Pushkarani (holy tank) in front of them. At the first temple, Lord Srinivasa or Prasanna Venkatesa Perumal, is found in a standing posture. He is standing on an Aavudaiyar, which forms part of the Sivalinga found in Siva temples. It is said that once Pundarika Maharishi, an ardent devotee of Lord Narayana, was on his way to Kanchipuram to worship Lord Varadaraja and when he found the two temples he went inside one of them and worshipped Lord Ranganatha, reclining on the Adisesha. When he found images of the Nandi generally found in Siva shrines, outside the other temple, he did not go inside. An aged person, who wanted to know the reason for his skipping the temple, stopped him outside it. When the sage replied that it was a Siva temple, and hence he was not visiting it, the old man told him that it was one dedicated to Lord Narayana and His image was inside.

He led the sage inside the temple where the huge image of Lord Narayana, standing on Aavudaiyar, was found and the old man disappeared. The sage, understood that it was Lord Narayana who took him inside the temple to make him realise the mistake of differentiating between the two Gods. The temple faces east and besides the gigantic image of the Moolavar, rising to a height of over eight feet, there are beautiful Utsava idols of Lord Srinivasa with Sridevi and Bhoodevi, besides Alarmelmangai Thayar, Andal, Nardhana Krishna and Sudarsana. The other temple, where the Lord is reclining on Adisesha, is linked to the legend of Brahma seeking the Lord's help to stop Saraswati flowing in the form of River Vegavati to destroy the Yagasala where he was performing the ritual to see the Lord. The Lord obliged him by lying across the course of the river. A similar legend exists in the case of the temple of Sri Yadoktakari at Thiruvehka in Kanchipuram. According to Sri Nandakumara Bhattachariar, the temple priest, those who worship the Lord here would be relieved of their sins and thus freed from the fear of punishment for their sins from Yama, the God of Death. The Lord here is known as Sri Ranganatha and Goddess Ranganayaki in the temple fulfils the prayers of the devotees for progeny and happy marriage. There is a separate shrine for Anjaneya and those who want to get rid of Apamrityu Dosham offer him a garland of pumpkins.

As the presiding deity in the temple is found as in the heavenly Milky Ocean with Sridevi and Bhoodevi sitting by His side and Brahma, seated on the lotus flower raising from the Lord's navel, the place gained the name of Thiruparkadal, according to the temple priest. The image of the Moolavar is made of Thaaru (wood) like the image of Athi Varadar in Kanchipuram. On Vaikunta Ekadasi day He is adorned with poovangi (flower dress) and the temple remains open throughout the day.

Many a tale behind the Lord's posture

THE LEGEND of "Aerikaatha Ramar" Temple in Madurantakam is wellknown. There is another place which has a similar association. It is Nemili, three km from Nallattur, famous for its Jayaveera Mangala Anjaneyar Temple, situated 11 km from Thiruthani on the road to Nagalapuram. The story goes like this: Sage Bhrigu and others performed a penance in Puri in Orissa to have a vision of Lord Narayana. He appeared but not the way they wanted Him to — in full form with Chakra, Shanka and Gadayutha. The Lord directed them to go to Kancheepuram and perform penance there, assuring them that He would appear before them. The sages found too many holy places in Kancheepuram and wanted to know which was the holiest among them. They sought the help of Brahma, who in turn prayed to the Lord and He appeared in sitting posture before him in Nemili. He said when the merit of Nemili was weighed against the merit of all other places the needle would tilt in Nemili's favour by the weight of a grain of paddy. Hence the place came to be known as "Nelmeli" or Nemili.

According to another legend a farmer in the village vowed before the Lord to give a major share of the yield from his land, and he got a bumper yield that year. Paddy obtained from the land was heaped like a hill in the threshing floor, but the farmer changed his mind on seeing the big yield and tried to take it home. And the entire paddy stock on the threshing floor turned into stone pebbles and it became a hill. The farmer, who realised his mistake, fell at the feet of the Lord, who took a single paddy grain in His two fingers as His share and gave back the entire stock to the farmer. That explains the Lord's posture of holding a grain between His fingers. The Lord's sitting posture has another interesting story behind it. Once there were unprecedented heavy rains in the area and the irrigation tank in the village got filled up and was overflowing. The villagers, who feared that it might breach any time appealed to the Lord who prevented the embankment from breaching, with His back. It is remarkable that the Moolavar idol even today sweats profusely and His garments, which become wet, have to be changed frequently.

The temple has no Rajagopuram at present. However, the remnants of the Rajagopuram, which existed in the past or was left unfinished, are found at the entrance. There is a plan to estore it. The Lord, who is found seated with Sridevi and Bhoodevi on either side, has "Prayoga Chakra" in His right upper hand, while the lower hand is in "Abhaya Hastha" pose. He wears big "Thirumann" on His forehead like the Lord in Tirumala. The idols of the Lord and His Consorts have been carved out of a single stone block, according to the authorities. The Utsavar idol of the Lord, with His two Consorts on either side, is known as Vaikundavasar. There are also idols of Venugopalan, Chakarathazhwar and Kaalinga Nardhana Krishnan. Of them the last mentioned is a delight for the connoisseur's eye as it has been exquisitely crafted. Unlike other Kaalinga Nardhana Krishna idols, the image of Kaaliyan with folded hands is found at the centre of the hood of the serpent king. The Lord, who dances on his head, holds his tail by His left hand. Special "Thirumanjanam" and "Aradhana" are offered to this idol on the Rohini star in every Tamil month and a large number of people afflicted by Rahu, Kethu and Navagraha dosha throng the temple on that day The temple was said to have been built in the ninth century by Aparajithan, the last of the Pallava rulers. There are many inscriptions on the temple's walls belonging to his period. The temple, which fell on bad times, was rediscovered by a devotee, in whose dreams the Anjaneyar of Nallattur was said to have appeared and asked him to restore the temple. A committee of devotees was formed which accomplished the task with the help of the philanthropic minded public. The Mahasamprokshanam was performed on June 2, 2002. An organisation, known as Kaalinga Nardhana Krishna Bhakta Jana Sangam (2057, First Street, Vasantham Colony, Anna Nagar West, Chennai-600040, phone no. 26182167) has been formed to rebuild the Rajagopuram and also maintain the temple.
Eternal Bliss in a minute
SHOLINGUR OR Chozhasimhapuram, one of the 108 Divyadesams or holy places sanctified by Azhwars' hymns, is known as Gadikachalam as the stay in that place for one Gadigai, an ancient unit of measurement of time, which is generally said to be one hour, gives salvation for all. There is another place nearby, which is equally venerable, and it is known as Nimishachalam as the stay in this place for one minute confers many benefits including eternal bliss for the devout public. Also called as Nimbaka Kshethram in the past, its present name is Santhana Venugopalapuram, shortly known as S.V.G. Puram. It is situated a few kilometres south-east of Sholingur, on the road to Tiruttani.
There is a reference to this place, with a temple dedicated to Lord Santhana Venugopalan or Krishna, in the "Brahmanda Puranam", "Brahma Vaivartha Puranam" and "Skanda Puranam". For nearly 400 years this temple was under the control of the Karvetinagaram kings. It is said the king of Karvetinagaram stayed in this place overnight after a day's hunting and it happened to be the place where the temple was lying buried. The Lord appeared in the king's dream and directed him to excavate and renovate the temple and also instal the "Kauthuka Murthi", one of the Utsava idols, in it. He obeyed the Divine command and reconstructed the temple
Nimishachalam is surrounded by holy places like Sholingur, Appalayagunta, Narayanavanam, Karvetinagaram, Tiruttani and R.K. Pet. The Dhruva Berar in the temple is "Eka Murthi" with the Kamadhenu on the left side, which is said to be a rare one. The Utsavar idol is that of Venugopalan flanked on either side by Rukmini and Sathyabhama with Kamadhenu standing nearby. The main Goddess here is Padmavathi Thayar. Brahmothsavam, Adhyayanothsavam, Krishna Jayanthi and other festivals are celebrated in the temple. Another important feature is the presence of the idols of Garuda, Anjaneya, Azhwars and Acharyas in such a small temple. The rituals are conducted according to Vaikhanasa Agama.
Holy sangamam in the South
MANY HOLY places in and around Kanchipuram are linked with the temple for Lord Varadaraja there, in one way or another. One among them is Pazhaiya Seevaram (or Sripuram), a lovely little village with a temple for Lord Narasimha atop a small hillock, about 15 km east of Kanchipuram on the road to Chengalpattu.
The place is also marked by the confluence of three rivers — Palar, Cheyyar and Vegavathi — and one can see the three rivers merging together at the place from the temple on the hillock. Known as Dakshina Prayag, it is a much holier place than the Triveni Sangamam or Prayag in the north, according to the octogenarian priest of the temple, Sri Narasimha Sundara Bhattachariar. This is because, while at Prayag all the three rivers are not visible to the naked eye (river Saraswathi is Antharvahini, running under ground) in Pazhaiya Seevaram the three rivers can be seen at the place of confluence.
In the midst of greenery everywhere with the river Palar running to its south, the hillock was known as Padmagiri in times of yore. It was here that Lord Narasimha was pacified by Goddess Mahalakshmi and hence it came to be known after Her as Sripuram, and later became Seevaram. How it acquired the title of old or pazhaiya is a mystery.
Apart from its holiness due to the confluence of the three rivers, the hill temple is visited by Lord Varadaraja of Kanchipuram on the day following Sankranthi, for what is known as ``Pazhaiya Seevaram Paarivettai''. Paarivettai is observed to mark the destruction of evil forces by the Lord and is celebrated in almost all Vishnu temples.
It is said the present Moolavar idol of Lord Varadaraja at Kanchipuram was sculpted out of a rock here after the original wooden idol of Atthi Varadar got damaged hundreds of years ago. It is said to mark this, Lord Varadaraja is taken to Pazhaiya Seevaram on the day following Sankranthi every year, when thousands of devotees gather here for vana bhojanam and aradhana.
Lord Varadaraja, who leaves His abode at 10 p.m. on Sankranthi day, accompanied by devotees including those reciting Azhwars' Paasurams and Vedas, is carried all the way to a distance of 15 km and goes around Pazhaiya Seevaram village at the foot of the hillock.
He reaches the Narasimha temple, which is in the middle of the hillock, at noon and then He is taken to the Varadaraja Mandapam atop the hill, by climbing the 140 steps. He stays in the mandapam there till 4 p.m. when thirumanjanam (sacred bath) and Aradhana are performed. Later the Lord reaches the Narasimha Temple and both the Gods are taken to a temple at Thirumukkoodal, on the other side of Palar where a temple for Lord Srinivasa, known as Appan, exists. There the three Gods, along with the Lords of two other temples, give darshan.
Later Lord Varadaraja returns to Pazhaiya Seevaram along with Narasimhar and then starts His trek back to Kanchipuram late in the night and reaches there next morning.
The idol of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha in the Pazhaiya Seevaram Temple with the Goddess sitting on His left lap is full of grace. Unlike in many temples where He is worshipped as Ugra Narasimha, He is Santha Swaroopi here, full of charming beauty.
According to the 17th chapter of the Brahmanda Puranam, the Lord came to Padmagiri to grant bliss to sages Athri, Markandeya and Bhrigu, who were doing penance here, as directed by other sages at Naimisaranyam. There is a separate shrine for the Goddess where She is worshipped as Ahobalavalli Thayar as at Ahobilam, in Andhra Pradesh. The Moolavar's image is gigantic, rising to a height of over six feet and He is adorned with a five yards by three yards (pathaaru) dhoti and angavastra. The Goddess is adorned with the traditional nine yards sari. The Lord faces west looking towards Kanchipuram. There are separate shrines for Andal, the Azhwars and Desikar, besides the one for Goddess Ahobilavalli. The temple must have had been in existence long before the Chola rule as inscriptions belonging to the 11th century are found here.
Unique manifestation
The Thirumukkoodal temple, on the other side of the Palar, also has a hoary past like Pazhaiya Seevaram.
The Lord at Thirumukkoodal is considered a manifestation of Lord Siva, Brahma and Narayana. His crown looks like the matted locks of Siva and He has a third eye on the forehead.
He wears the Shanku and Chakra like Lord Narayana on His left and right hand and a lotus in one of His hands. He also stands on the lotus which is the symbol of Brahma. In recent times many preceptors including Sri Gokulnathji of Vallabha Sampradaya have stayed here for many years and the temple is managed by Gujarati Vaishnavas who have lived in Chennai for many generations.
The Tipu factor
Sathyamangalam Sri Venugopalaswami temple is one of the few Vishnu temples located in Kongunadu on the Coimbatore-Mysore highway. Sathyamangalam has a shrine dedicated to Lord Sri Venugopalaswami — Sri Krishna playing the flute leaning on the cow — one of the most enchanting forms of the deity, chiselled in stone.
The famous shrine of Bannari Sri Mariamman temple is only eight kilometres from Sathyamangalam.
The dam, Kodi Veri, is five miles from the town.
The town assumed its name after a chieftain by name Sathyaputra came to rule it.
Ancient shrine
The 700-year-old temple has a lofty Rajagopuram and a tall Dwajasthambam. In front of the Rajagopuram is installed Deepa Sthambha otherwise known as Garudasthambha, made of stone. On the sides of the pillar are carved the conch and the disc and the figure of Hanuman.
At the centre of the temple is the 108-pillared mandapam. In the middle is a 30-feet-tall flagstaff made of seasoned wood. During festivals, the temple flag is hoisted atop this.
The presiding deity is Sri Venugopalaswami — an image of unsurpassed beauty and charm. The centre of attraction in the shrine is a single stone containing the images of Sri Yoga Narasimha Murthy and Sri Sudarsana Murthy on the front and back.
There are sub-shrines for Lord Ranganatha and Lakshmi. The temple enjoys several acres of land gifted as endowments. Besides, it gets an annual income of Rs. 2,000 from the government. Sri Ramanuja, the great Vaishnava saint and preceptor is said to have sought shelter in Sathyamangalam on his way to Mysore, as he fled from persecution by the then Chola king.
Rangayya, an officer appointed by Tipu Sultan, utilised the tax money collected for the renovation of the temple without remitting it into the treasury. Fearing punishment, the officer committed suicide by swallowing the diamond from his ring. However, realising that the money of Tipu Sultan was used for the renovation of the shrine, he arranged to carve the image of the Sultan, as a token of gratitude.
Singri temple
SINGRI KOIL, is a hamlet, situated at a distance of about 25 kilometres from Vellore, in erstwhile North Arcot district and is off the main road from Vellore to Polur. It is an exclusive shrine for Lord Lakshmi Narasimha and is believed to be at least 1,000 years old.
This 10th century shrine is said to have been built by the local chieftain, Rajavarman, at the behest of Lord Narasimha, who appeared in his dream.
The temple is not one of the 108 divya desas, neither is it one of the `abhimaana sthalas.' It is not included in the 108 kshetras visited by Ramanuja either.
Yet it has been visited by millions of devotees. The temple is on a small hillock, which is nearly 80 to 90 feet high and can be reached after climbing about 50 steps.
The main idol in the sanctum sanctorum is that of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Lord is seen in a sitting posture with four hands — two hands hold the conch and the discus, His third (left) hand is on his lap and fourth (right) hand is around the waist of Goddess Lakshmi. The image of the Lord is nearly six feet in height.
The Lord with Goddess Lakshmi seated on his right lap is a unique spectacle. This inimitable posture of the Lord and the Goddess is the main attraction of the Temple. Thirumanjanam is performed on every Swathi Nakshatram, which is the birth star of Narasimha.
There is a separate shrine for Sri Lord Anjaneya, who is known here as Sri Bala Anjaneya.
The idol is one foot high. Bala Anjaneya, who appears like a small child is believed to bestow the boon of parenthood on the childless. The temple also has a separate shrine for Sri Garuda.
Narasimha Jayanthi, Vaikunda Ekadesi, Ratha Sapthami, Tamil and English New Year and Purattasi Saturdays are celebrated at this temple at Singri. Buses on route No. 15-S (limited schedules — 8.30 a.m.-12.30 p.m.) ply from Vellore to Singri Koil. The journey time is one hour and 10 minutes. Darshan Timings: 8 a.m. to 11 a.m. — 3 p.m. to 6 p.m.
Of tilting pillars
IN ONE of his pasurams on Lord Ranganatha of Srirangam, Tirumangai Azhwar describes the Lord as "aypadi valarnda nambi..." The aypadi he is referring to is Gokul in Uttar Pradesh, a place associated with Krishna avatar. But there is a village called Tiruayarpadi, three km from Ponneri, which has an ancient temple in which the deity is called Karikrishna Perumal. To reach Ponneri one has to drive down the Grand Trunk Road that links Chennai with Kolkata. Karikrishna Perumal is in a standing posture, facing North, with a whip in His right hand, His left hand resting on His hip, balancing an Amrita Kalasam on His head.
The idol was discovered in a termite hill. When the villagers began to demolish the termite hill, they noticed the head of the idol. When they began to dig at the base of the termite hill to dislodge the idol, Lord Krishna is believed to have lifted His right leg and moved to one side to avoid being struck by the crowbar. Even today He is seen with His right leg slightly tilted to one side. The moolavar does not rest on a peetam, but on the ground. Sage Bharadwaja is believed to have worshiped this idol. It is also a prarthana sthalam where childless couples worship and are blessed with children.
The sthala vriksham is magizham and the tank is called Santhana pushkarani. The Arani flows in front of the temple. Brahmotsavam is celebrated for 10 days beginning with Chitra Pournami. There is a separate sannidhi for Soundaryavalli Thayar, seen standing. Outside the temple is a mandapam with 16 stone pillars, all slanting in different directions. It is an architectural marvel that the ceiling is firmly in place in spite of these slanting pillars. The temple has a beautiful wooden chariot, which lies abandoned in the village bazaar. The top portions of the wooden chariot have been completely vandalised. The lower portions, which are relatively unspoilt, have exquisite carvings. These represent scenes from the life of Krishna. There is also a piece that shows Karikrishna Perumal emerging from the termite hill with His slightly tilted leg.
According to the priest, the temple was built by the Chola king Karikala II, and that is why the deity has the prefix Kari before His name. Quite likely because in Karikala's time, Tondai Nadu, of which Ponneri was a part, was under Chola rule. Karikalan divided Tondai Nadu into 24 kottams and settled many Vellala Mudaliars in them.
The present temple with its carved stone pillars must have been built much later than Karikal Peruvalathan's time. Maybe the temple built by Karikala crumbled in the course of time and was later replaced with the present one by one of his descendants. The temple is well maintained, but the HR&CE must repair the wooden chariot with its beautiful carvings and restore it to its past glory. It would also be useful if a sthalapuranam is brought out.

Sri Vaishnava Temples

Srivilliputtur Divine home of the Saint-Poetess

Aaymur Another abode of Lord Venkateswara (Lord Venkata Varadaraja temple in Aaymur, near Thirukkuvalai, in Nagapattinam district)

Agaram Sri Anjel Perumal temple

Akkur As holy as Tirumala (Ambujavalli Nayikaa Samedha Lakshmi Narayana temple, 20 km from Kachipuram)

Ananthakrishnapuram Unsung but not forgotten (Lord Lakshminarayana in Ananthakrishnapuram village near Tirunelveli)

Avaniyapuram Five Lords of a hill temple (Located near Wandavasi in North Arcot district)

Bikshandarkoil/Thirukandiyur Temple for the Great Trinity (Bikshandarkoil and Thirukandiyur are two places where Siva, Vishnu and Brahma are seen near each other.)

Chennai Sri Lakshmi Balaji temple, Pallikaranai
• Sri Parthasarathy temple, Tiruvallikeni
Sri Lakshmi Nrisimha Temple, Maraimalai Nagar
The benign radiance of Gitacharyan (Sri Parthasarathy Swamy temple, Tiruvallikeni)
Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple, Keelkattalai
Where sage Brighu did penance (Sri Madhava Perumal Temple, Mylapore)
Eighty years of majestic presence (Srinivasa Perumal temple, Mylaore)
Srinivasa Perumal Temple, Mylapore
Srinivasa Perumal temple, Purasawalkam
Golden Satari for Udaiyavar
Twin temples of Koyambedu
Sowmya Damodara Perumal temple, Villivakkam
Yoga Narasimha Temple, Velacherry
Lord Varadaraja temple, Virugambakkam

Chettipunnyam Captivating deities at Chettipunnyam (Devanathaswami temple)

Coimbatore • Sri Varada Anjaneya temple

Devadanam Sri Ranganatha temple in Devadanam village, Ponneri taluk, Tiruvallur

Elanagar In need of attention (Elanagar Perumal Koil -- 25 km from Kanchipuram in Uthiramerur taluk)

Gunaseelam Akin to Tirupati (Sri Prasanna Venkatachalapathy temple -- 15 km southeast of Musiri in Tiruchi dist.)
For those in search of solace (Sri Prasanna Venkateswara temple)

Kalyanapuram Sri Srinivasa Perumal temple

Kanchipuram Kanchi temple in need of renovation (Devarajaswami Temple)
The great Light of Thiruthannka (The Deepaprakasar temple, Thooppul)
Reviving the glory of Pelapur temple (Lord Keerthinarayana)
Triad of sacred spots

Karappankadu Birthplace of Vaishnavite saints (Karappankadu temple can be reached by travelling via the Mannargudi-Pattukkottai bus route)

Krishnapuram An interesting temple tale (Sri Jayaveera Abhayahastha Anjaneya temple near Kadayanallur)

Kumbakonam Sri Ramaswamy temple

Kundrathur Sri Thiru-Uraga perumal temple

Kurumbur Picture of neglect (Adi Narayana Temple at Kurumbur in Tuticorin district)

Madurai • Festive time at the city of temples (Kallazhagar temple)

Maduranthakam Maduranthakam — unique and significant (Aeri Katha Ramar temple)

Manimangalam Ancient shrines near Sriperumbudur (Sri Rajagopala swamy)

Mannarkoil Sad state of a glorious shrine (A Vishnu temple near Ambasamudram)

Mannarkovil SRI Vedhanarayanar Rajagopalaswami Kulasekara Azhwar temple (2 km from Ambasamudram in Tirunelveli dist.)

Mavattakkudi Sri Venkatachalapathy temple in Tiruvarur district

Melasevel Sri Navaneethakrishnan temple (16 km from Tirunelveli to Ambasamudram road)

Nachiyar Kovil Where the Lord came seeking His bride

Nagapattinam In all His enchanting grace (Soundaryaraja Perumal Temple)

Nallattoor The Saviour as an endearing child (Sri Anjaneya temple near Tiruttani)

Namakkal Rock-cut shrines of Namakkal

Naranammalpuram Srinivasa temple renovated (Lord Srinivasa situated five km east of Tirunelveli)

Narasingapuram Narasimha temple in ruins (Lakshmi Narasimha Perumal shrine near Arakkonam on the Chennai-Tandalam-Perambakkam Road)

Nedungunam Stands for Rama's noble qualities (situated 24 km from Arani in North Arcot district)

Nemili Many a tale behind the Lord's posture (Veetrirunda Perumal Temple)

Nimishachalam Eternal Bliss in a minute (Lord Santhana Venugopala near Sholinghur)

Oothukkadu Dancing on serpent hood (about 7 km from Thirukarugavoor -- in Papanasam taluk)
Padur Sri Prasanna Venkatesa Perumal: Destroyer of sorrows (near Ulundurpet)

Pappanchavadi Hanuman's special avatar as Annihilator (Lord Panchamukha Anjaneya near Pondicherry)
Parikkal Fearsome and loveable (Lord Narasimha near Villupuram)
Pazhaiya Seevaram

Holy sangamam in the South (Lord Narasimha atop a small hillock, about 15 km east of Kanchipuram)

Sri Adi Narayana Perumal temple

Temple on land with unique distinction (Sri Venkata Varadaraja Perumal temple, near Villupuram)
Pudunilai Vayal

Sri Rajagopalaswami Temple (About 2 km. from Kizhnilaikottai in Pudukottai District)

Glorifying the chivalry of Jatayu (Lord Valvii Rama temple near Kumbakonam)

Enchanting images of Sri Rama (Sri Pattabirama near Thanjavur)

Sri Venugopalaswamy temple

Great preceptor of Sholingur (Lord Lakshmi Narasimha)

Twin temples that draw devotees

Brahmotsavam at Singaperumalkoil

For the sake of a child-devotee (Padaladri Narasimha Perumal temple)

Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami Temple (about 25 kilometres from Vellore)

Sri Ranganathaswamy temple, Srirangam

Sri Kalyana Anjaneya temple

Linked to the Ramayana (Sri Varadaraja Perumal temple near Nannilam)

King with a flying chariot (Sri Amaruviappan with His Consort -- 21 km from Mayiladuthurai)

Gorgeous outfit for deity (Sri Devanatha Swamy -- situated 3 km west of Cuddalore)

Sri Karikrishna Perumal temple (three km from Ponneri)

Praised by Azhwar and Nayanmar (Lord Saranathan temple, 15 km from Kumbakonam)

Saranagatha Rakshaka Perumal temple (Situated 16 km south of Mayiladuthurai)

Hailed by the Azhwars

Crowning glory for the Tiruvallur deity (Lord Veeraraghava)

Thiruvellarai — land of the white boar

Temples that reverberate with history (Pallikonda Perumal)

Sri Venkatesa Perumal temple (in Kanchipuram dist.)

Democracy of a high standard — ancient example (Sri Sundaravaradaraja Perumal temple)

The Lord lays stress on Supreme Devotion (Lord Vijayasanar two km east of Srivaikuntam in Tuticorin district)

Vatarangam, seat of Hari and Haran (Lord Ranganatha and Goddess Ranganayaki shrine near Sirkazhi)

The cave temple at Yanaimalai (Yoga Narasimha Perumal temple, eight km from Madurai, on the road to Melur)



Introduction Note from the Author Sri. K Suresh as appearing in Sri Rudra Ghana Patha Book and Pancha Rudra Ghana Patha Book

The Veda

Rig Veda
Yajur Veda
Saama Veda
Atharva Veda

Common to All Vedas

a. Sikshaa
b. Chandas
c. Vyakarana
d. Niruktha
e. Jyotisham
f. Kalpa

Veda Upangas (secondary organs of the Vedas)
Vakhya pathaa
Pada Paathaa
Krama Paathaa
Jata Paathaa
Ghana paathaa
The Vikrithis

Sri Rudra - Yajur Veda

Introduction Note

Benefits of Abhisheka and Rudra Japa

Pancha Rudra- Rig Veda

Introduction Note

The five mukhas (faces) of Lord Siva

The Veda

The term Veda comes from the root 'Vid', to know. The word Veda means knowledge. These are direct intuitional revelations, of the eternal truths that got revealed by itself to the great ancient Rishi (ateendriya mantra drashta) and are held to be entirely superhuman, without any author in particular. The Veda is the glorious pride of the Hindus. They are without beginning and end hence, the Vedas are apaursheya & anaati - not created by humans, and eternal.

Vedas are the basis of Hindu Dharma. They are the most ancient existing scripture of the world. The Hindus rightly believe that they have been revealed by God himself, and are considered the ultimate & valid means of knowledge.

The Vedas are called Sruti because they are transmitted from generation to generation by oral tradition. In our Veda tradition, chanting & learning of these mantras are perfected to unbelievable limits. There is no possibility of error of even half an alphabet. The mantras of Vedas were revealed to different Rishies at different points of time were collected. For easy handling, one of the greatest sages of all times - Sri Veda Vyaasa compiled them into four parts (Rig, yajur, saama & atharvana). Later he gave each of these Vedas to one of his disciples to carry them forward. Rig Veda was given to Paila, Yajur Veda to Vasampaayana, Saama Veda to Jaimini, and the Atharva Veda to Sumantu. It is believed that, Rig Veda had 21 Saakas, Yajus had 101 Saakas, Saama had 1000 Saakas and Atharva Veda had 9 Saakas, totaling 1,131 Saakas. However, only 10 Saakas are available to us today!

Broadly each Veda consists of four parts: (1) the Mantra-samhitaa or hymns, (2) the braahmanaa or explanations of Mantras or rituals, (3) the Aaranyakaas, and (4) the Upanishads.

Rig Veda: Rig is derived from the word 'ric' which literally means 'praise or verse', especially 'a sacred verse recited in praise of a deity. It has 8 Kaandaas (Ashtakaas) and 64 Adhyaayaas or 10 Mandaals (Sections) with 85 Anuvaakaas (sub sections). There are 1028 Sukaas in these Mandaals and in total 397265 aksharaas (Letters). Suktaas are a small group of Mantras, and have their own Devata, Rishies & chandas. Totally there are 10552 Mantras in Rig Veda. The total number of Rishies in Rig Veda is 403. There used to be 21 Saakas of the Rig Veda. There are only two available today. They are 1. Bhaskalaa Saaka 2. Sakalaa Saaka. Rig Veda has 1. kausitakee braahmanaa 2. Sankraayanaa braahmanaa and 3. aitreya Braahmanaa as Braahmanaas and 1. kausitakee Aaranyakaa 2. aitreya Aaranyakaa as Aaranyakaas. 1. kausitakee and 2. aitreya Upanishad belongs to Rig Veda samhitaa. For application, 'Asvalayana Sutra' is followed.

Among the Vedic corpus available to us today, the Rig Veda Samhitaa is the biggest, oldest of all the Vedic Samhitaas, grandest of the Hindus, and the best in the world. Its style, the language and the tone are most beautiful and mysterious. Its priest in yajyaa is called the hotaa / hotree / hotraa:. It comprises of hymns in praise of Agni, indraa, rudraa, asvini, Savitur, suryaa, varunaa, marutaa, somaa, and ripu.

Yajur Veda: Yajur is derived from the word 'yajus', literally 'reverence, veneration or sacrifice'. Though it includes many of the hymns of the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda deviates more from the original text in its collection of the ritual formula for the priests (called Adhvaryu ) to use in the sacrifices, (yajyaa)

The literary value of Yajur Veda is mostly for its prose, which consists of short terse sentences full of meaning and cadence. It is the Veda of Sacrifice or Yajyaa through oblations into the Agni (holy fire). Its deities are the same as the Rig Veda

Yajur Veda had originally 101 Saakas or branches. This Veda is divided into krishna Yajur Veda and Sukla Yajur Veda, meaning black or mixed and white or Pure Yajur Veda.

The White Yajur consists of 40 adhyaayaas (chapters), 303 anuvaakaas (sections) and 1975 kandiyaas. The two popular recensions (Saakas) of the Sukla Yajur Veda are: 1. vaajasaneyee maadyaandineeya Saaka (This school dominates North India just as the taittireeya school in South India.) and 2. kaanva Saaka (40 adhyaayaas (chapters), 328 anuvaakaas (sections) 2086 kandikaas with 29666 padaas); (this Saaka is very rare and pundits affiliated to this school are found inchi kollai of Tanjavore District and later in Tirunelveli, Southern Tamil Nadu) This has Satapatha Braahmanaa as Braahmanam and 1. Isha 2. brahadaaranya as Upanishads.

Sukla Yajus consists of 15 Saakas named vaajasaneyeya - ayaatayaama. Maharishi Sri yaajyavalkya, by his Tapas (Devotion), learned this Veda from suryaa (Sun), and imparted through his diciples in India. Hence, the name 'vaajasaneyeya'.

There is no mixture of Braahmanaa and Mantra in this Veda, hence it is called 'Sukla Yajur Veda or ayaatayaama'. There is a brief note on this in the works of Sri Aadhi Sankaraa and Sayanaachaarya. Its history, has been described in skaandha, bhaagavataa. Srimad Ramayanaa, Srimad Bhagavataa and Srimad Mahabharataa which hinted that Avatara Purusha's Like Sri Rama, Sri Krishna and Sri Kalki followed Kaatyaayanaa sutra and did aupaasanaa. Vyaakyaataas (commentors) clarified that these Avatara Purusha's are Sukla Yajur Vedins.

Out of 15 Saakaas, at present only 1. Kaanvaa and 2. maadyaandineeya Saakaas are in vogue. maadyaandineeya Saakaa is very popular in Maharastra and UP. Whereas Kaanvaa Saaka is popular in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andra, Orissa, and Maharastra. But, the Adyaayana Parampara (Teacher's Tradition) are high in places like Tanjore, Trichy, Chengalpattu, than, any other districts in Tamil Nadu.

At present, this Saaka, originated from Kaanvakulapati Brahma Sri. Chidambara Ghanapati, inchi kollai, Tanjore District and then spread in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is to be noted that, the students (Sisya) who studied under him, are the teachers (Adyapaka's) of Patasala's (School's) in Vaikanallur (Kulitalai) near Trichy, Kancheepuram, Bangalore and Ambattur (Chennai).

The Black Yajur is divided into 7 kaandaas (books) 44 prasnas (chapters) with 651 anuvaakaas. There are 2198 kandikaas (or panjadi comprising fifty words). The krishna Yajur Veda has three Saakas : 1. taittireeya Saaka, (Majority of South Indians are affiliated to this branch/school and is very popular in South India) 2. paaraksutra Saaka, 3. kaathaka Saaka, and 4. maitraayanee Saaka (understand, this is extremely rare, but very few people still exists in and around Nasik, Maharashtra). Majority of the Yajurvedins follow Aapastamba sutraa, few follow the sutraas of bodhaayana, and still very few follow hiranyakesi's (satyaashaadam), bhaaratvaajam, Aagni veshyam, and vaikaanasam sutraas. Its Braahmanaa is taittireeya Braahmanaa. Its Aaranyakaa is taittireeya Aaranyakaa . Its Upanishads are 1. taittireeya 2. kata and 3. maitraayanee.

Saama Veda : 'Saama' means 'peace and or enjoyment'. Saama Veda mantras are with musical notes and was basically meant for singing the mantras known as Saama ghana. Most of the mantras of Saama Veda Samhitaa are found in Rig Veda . The Samhitaa of Saama Veda has two parts - poorva Aarchik & utra Aarchik. The former section has 6 chapters with 650 mantras, and the latter section has 21 chapters with 1225 mantras. Totally this Veda has 1875 mantras. Only 75 verses of the total of 1,875 verses of Saama Veda are not to be found in Rig Veda. The remaining 1,800 verses are essentially the repetitions of Rig Vedic verses . The important distinction however is that they are sung instead of being recited. The Rig Veda deals with knowledge and Saama Veda deals with Upasana, Worship and Dhyanam. In yajyaa the priest is called "udghaataa". The hymns are addressed to indraa, Agni, and somaa.

Saama Veda had originally 1000 Saakas or branches. But at present only three Saakas are in vogue. They are 1. kauthuma (This is traditionally associated with Gujarat and today, it is prevalent in North India, and in Thanjavur, South India). These followers of the kauthuma Saaka may follow the laatyaayana Srouta sutra and/or the gopila grhya sutraa and/or khadira grhya sutraa and draahyaayana sutra. On the other hand, some of Thanjavur kauthumas (a branch of the raanaayaneeyas) follow the draahyaayana sutra, which are associated normally with the raanaayaneeya Saaka. 2. raanaayaneeya Saaka (text are similar to kauthuma Saaka. But, this Saaka is attached to the draahyaayana sutras. This Saaka is very rare and came to know that pundits affiliated to this school are found in northern Karnataka.) 3. Jaimini or talavakaara Saaka (This Saaka exists among the Nambudiri community in Kerala.) Saama Veda has 1.taanya Braahmanaa, 2. Sadvimsa 3. Saama vidhaana 4. Aarseya 5. devataa adyaaya 6. Chantogya 7. samhita upanshad and 8. vamsa Braahmanaa as its Braahmanaas. It has 1. Chaantogya and 2. kena as its Upanishads.

Atharva Veda : Atharva Veda has mantras, those are to be used for various special purposes. The Atharva Veda Samhitaa has two parts. (1) The Atharva & (2) the Aangirasa. Because of these two major sections, this Veda is also called Atharvaangirasa, and in short Atharva Veda . The Other names of this Veda are : 1. brahma Veda 2. angiro 3. brsvaangirasaa 4. ksatra Veda and 5. bhaishangya. This had nine branches or rescensions (navadha Atharvano Veda ): These nine branches are : (1) paipilaada (2) tauda (3) munda (4) saunaka (5) jaajala (6) jalaada (7) brahmaveda (8) devadarsha and (9) chaarana vaidya. Today, only two of the nine branches of Atharva Veda are available to us.They are: 1. paipilaada Saaka (This Saaka was thought to be completely extinct, and was known only through one imperfect manuscript from Kashmir. During 1960s, some scholars were discovered in Orissa, and the paipilaada Samhitaa was edited and published by Shri. D. Bhattacharya. Few Atharvavedin affiliated to this school exist in South India) 2. Saunaka Saaka (a small group of scholars in Saurashtra (Gujarat), Gokarna, (Karnataka), Varanasi, (U.P) and Tamil Nadu). munaka and maandookya are its Upanishads.

"Gopata Braahmanaa" is the Braahmanaa for this Veda. "kausika grhya sutra" is used for its implementation (prayoga) for this Veda . The Samhitaa of this Veda has 20 kaandaa (chapters), 730 suktaas and 5977 mantras. Some prefer to catalog the Atharva Veda Text (Samhitaa )into prapaathaakas (Lessons or lectures ). Under this classification , there are 34 prapaathaakas that house the 5977 verses. In yajyaa the priest is called "brahmaa ", (knows mantras of all Veda s) and has a very important place amongst all Rikvits. Major portion of Atharva Veda is common to Rig Veda.

Common to All Vedas : The subject matter of the whole Veda is divided into karma kaandaa, upaasana kaandaa and Gyaana kaandaa. The Ritual Section or karma kaandaa deals with various sacrifices and rituals. The Worship Section or upaasana kaandaa deals with various kinds of worship or meditation. The Knowledge-Section or Gyaana kaandaa deals the highest level of knowledge.(Aatma tatva saak kshaatkaaram / Aatma anubhavaa) The Mantras and the Braahmanaas constitute karma kaandaa; the Aaranyakaas - upaasana kaandaa; and the Upanishads - Gyaana kaandaa..

Vedanga (parts of Veda ) are the different branches of study that one should undertake to understand Vedas fully. They are:

a. Sikshaa : (Called Nose of Veda ). It provides the rules of phonetics or pronunciation / duration of utterance of each syllable to give matching sound – euphony. The goal is to achieve correct pronounciation and articulation through, aksaraa suddhi (syllable purity); svara suddhi (tonal / pitch purity) and maatraa suddhi (durational purity), balaa (force of articulation), samam (evenness) and santaana: (continuity). Phonetics are most critical in the case of Vedic language, because, a change in sound results in completely different effects. In Sikshaa, there are lots of varieties like 1. paanineeya Sikshaa (Rig), 2. Aatreya Sikshaa (Yajur) 3. vyaali Sikshaa (Rig ) 4. vyaasa Sikshaa (Yajur) 5. Lomasa Sikshaa (Saamam) 6. bhaaradvaaja Sikshaa (Yajur) 7. kaudinya Sikshaa (Yajur) 8. kaala nirnaya Sikshaa (Yajur) 9. paari Sikshaa (Yajur) 10. yaajyavalkiya Sikshaa (Common) 11. vaasishtha Sikshaa (Rig) 12. AAranyaka Sikshaa (Yajur) and so on. svaras are of different types as 1. udaattaa, 2. anudaattaa, 3. svaritaa, 4. pracayaa, 5. ucca taraa (type of udaattaa), 6. sannata taraa (type of anudaattaa), and 7. ekasruti.

b. Chandas - meter (Feet of Veda ) The common names and its number of letters are given in the table:

Sl No. Name of Chandas No.of letters
1 gaayatree 24

2 ushnik 28

3 anushtup 32

4 brhatee 36

5 pankti 40

6 trishtup 44

7 jagatee 48

8 ati jagatee 52

9 Sakvaree 56

10 ati Sakvaree 60

11 ashti 64

12 atyashti 68

13 dhruti 72

14 ati dhruti 76

15 kruti 80

16 prakruti 84

17 Akruti 88

18 vikruti 92

19 sankruti 96

20 abhikruti 100

21 utkruti 104

Each mantra is dedicated to a Devata/Deity, has a specific chandas and has a Rishi who brought it to the world. That is the reason why we touch our head as we recite the name of the Rishi (symbolically placing his feet on our head), touch the nose when we recite the chandas (the guardian for the mantra is meter and so there is no life of the mantra without it; in the same way, there is no life without breath); touch our heart when reciting the name of the devata (to meditate upon the deity in our heart). Pingalacharya provides the grammar for this. Further, this has been classified into Laukikam and Vaidikam.

c. Vyakarana - deals with grammar (Mouth of Veda ) It explains about the noun, verb, gender, singular, dual & plural, timings etc

d. Niruktha - deals with etymology (origin and history of words) (Ears of Veda) Yaska is the author of this.

e. Jyotisham : astronomy (Science of Stars and Planets) (Eyes of Veda ) very helpful to determine the time for performing any rituals or functions and further, to predict the future of any person. The time was calculated as 1. paraarddha kaalam (life of brahmaa ), 2. manvantaram, 3. Yuga, 4. Year, 5. Ayana, 6. ¨atu, 7. Month, 8. Paksha (Fortnight), 9. Week, 10. Day, 11. muhoorttam, 12. naazhigai (24 Minutes) and 13. Seconds. Jyotsha could be classified as 1. Mathematics 2. Jataka (Horoscopes) and 3. Samhitaa (Details). In Jyotisha, Mathematics is very important.. Even in krishna Yajur Veda, ( in 5th and 7th kaandaa ) the maths table from 1 to 1011 was explained in Ashwameda recitals.

Time could be determined as manushyamaanam, devamaanam manvantaram, and Life of brahmaa. Our 12 months (1 year) is equivalent to 1 day for Devas. Hence our 360 years equals to 1 year for Devas.

When we want to calculate the Yuga in years:

Yuga Man years Deva years
kruta/satya yugaa 17,28,000 4,800

tretaa yugaa 12,96,000 3,600

dvaapara yugaa 8,64,000 2,400

kali yugaa 4,32,000 1,200

Total 43,20,000 12,000

Hence chatur yugaa or mahaa yugaa (4 Yugas) equals to 43,20,000 years of ours. At the end of a mahaa yugaa (after 43,20,000 years) there will a universal disaster, where everything will be destroyed by the cosmic fire. Then, a new kruta / satya yugaa will emerge out of the old kali yugaa. The ratios between the Yugas are 4:3:2:1 in terms of duration. With the beginning of a new satya yugaa, the original state of purity is restored, and the cycle begins again with full righteousness, which decreases by one-fourth in tretaa yugaa, by one-half in dvaapara yugaa and by three-fourth in the kali yugaa.

Hindu concept of time is cyclical and is reckoned as the continuum of the day and night of brahmaa, the creator; the day is kalpa (creation) and the night is pralaya (deluge). One day (kalpa) of brahmaa is further subdivided into 1000 mahaa yugaas or 14 manvantaras (or the periods of Manu), and each manvantara comprises 71 mahaa yugaas.

One Kalpa coincides with one Day of brahmaa's life, and when the night comes, the Universe will be reabsorbed (Pralaya) in his divine sleep for equal period (another kalpa). At that time, all the Veda Mantras (Sound) will go back to the Universe and hidden.

Every Kalpa has 1000 cycles of the four Yuga (mahaa yugaa).

4,320,000 x 1,000 = 4,320,000,000 years

Like this, 71 chatur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) makes 1 Manvantara. 14 Manvantaras makes 1 Kalpa (one day or one night) for brahmaa.

4,320,000 x 71 x 14 = 4,294,080,000 years

The last six (1000-71x14) catur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) are necessary to make a kalpa (to have 1000 mahaa yugaa) are distributed among the different Manvantara as Sandhies. Now we attempt to calculate the age of brahmaa : ( all figures are human years)

chatur yugaa 4,320,000 x71

Manvantaram 306,720,000 x14 = 4,294,080,000

Add: 6 chatur yugaas 25,920,000

Kalpam (day) 4,320,000,000

Add: Kalpam (Night) 4,320,000,000

Full Day 8,640,000,000 x360

One year 3,110,400,000,000 x100

Age of brahmaa (100 years)

I understand from others that, next brahmaa is Sri hanumaan. It is not fare to compare our age now!!

The present kali yugaa started 3102 years before the birth of Christ on February 20th at 14 hrs 27 minutes and 30 seconds. At that period also all the planets were housed in one zodiac sign. In this connection Europe's famous astronomer Belly observes this:

"According to astronomical calculations of the Hindus, the present period of the world, Kaliyuga, commenced 3102 years before the Christ on 20th February, at 2 hours 27 minutes and 30 seconds. They say conjunction of planets took place and their table show this conjunction. It was natural to say that a conjunction of planets then took place. This calculation of Veda Pundits is so exactly confirmed by our own astronomical tables that nothing but actual observation could have given so correspondent a result." (Theology of Hindus by Count Bjornstjerna, page 32).

Note that the 'kali yugaa ', although taken to have an aeonic impact upon people's way of life, is nevertheless a fiction used for astrological computation: At the beginning of the Kali epoch the mean places of the 7 planets are assumed to be at the beginning of the sidereal sphere at 0 degrees Aries. By calculating from this epoch the mean positions of Sun, Moon and planets are obtained.

Diurnal motion - daily rising/setting of Sun, Moon, planets, stars; due to daily rotation of Earth from west to east. Movement of Sun eastward by 10 per day relative to background stars, i.e., seasonal change of constellations; due to annual revolution of Earth about Sun;

In surya siddhaantaa, bhaaskaraachaaryaa calculates the time taken for the earth to orbit the sun to 9 decimal places. bhaaskaraachaaryaa = 365.258756484 days. Astronomer W.M. Smart = 365.2564 days. Modern accepted measurement = 365.2596 days. Between bhaaskaraachaaryaa's ancient measurement 1500 years ago and the modern measurement the difference is only 0.00085days. (only 0.0002%)


In a chatur yugaas (mahaa yugaa) the revolutions of the Sun are 4,320,000, of the Moon 57,753,336, of the Earth eastward 1,582,237,500, of Saturn 146,564, of Jupiter 364,224, of Mars 2,296,824 ..etc. This is an extremely accurate ratio (1,582,237,500 / 57,753,336 = 27.3964693572) of Moon revolution about the Earth from the following table:


(from Clarke and Kay) Surya Siddanta

Years in Yuga 4,320,000 4,320,000

Rotations 1,582,237,500 1,582,237,828

Days 1,577,917,500 1,577,917,828

Lunar Orbits 57,753,336* 57,753,336

Synodic Months 53,433,336 53,433,336

Mercury 17,937,920 17,937,060

Venus 7,022,388 7,022,376

Mars 2,296,824 2,296,832

Jupiter 364,224 364,220

Saturn 146,564 146,568

* Shri. Kay notes 57,753,339 lunar orbits rather than 57,753,336 per Shri. Clarke.

In addition to the reckoning of time by yugaas, we have in use two eras used to reckon historical periods: Vikramaa Era starting in 57 BCE; It is on this day 1924 years ago, King Saalivaahanaa of Ujjaini after killing the invading Saaka tribe beyond the river Sindhu, returned successfully to Ujjaini (by early morning hours). Hence the Saalivaahanaa Era (not Saaka Era). The Vikramaa Era (also called Maalavaa Era) begins on Kaarthika Shukla prathama (around October-November). It was started by King Saalivaahanaa's grandfather King vikramaadityaa who too defeated the invading Saaka tribe 2058 years ago & returned to his capital in time for the Deepaavali celebrations. We can see these particulars in our Almanac or Panchanga.

"In surya siddhaantaa all the calculations are in terms of positive integers. The unit of angle, its smallest unit used in this integer environment, is one minute of an arc of which there are 21,600 in a full circle. If a time frame of 21,600 years is selected, then the accuracy of the mean motion of the planets, could be one minute of an arc per year if the period of rotation is specified in terms of the number of rotations made in a time frame. In Rig Veda 1.164.11 it says "The Universe rotates around a wheel with twelve spokes and three centers."

Relating our own body to cosmology, the earth, our physical or planetary body, is sustained by food, our emotional center (Soul) is sustained by breath and our intellectual center (Moon) is sustained by impressions. A respiration consists of two halves, an inhalation and an exhalation. Speech is breath modulated by the physical organism in various ways (depth of breathing, muscle tension, shape of mouth, shape of mental impressions.) The Indian measure is that 10 long syllables make 1 breath. There are smaller subdivisions of time ending with the paramanu (this is related to the time taken to sense an impression). Consistent with this view is the concept that people are, like the real solar system, subject to fluctuations, perturbations and inequalities. The periods are based on the numbers 27, 108, 360 and 21600.

Breath : 21600 breaths per full day (24 hours) 10800 = solar(day), 10800 = lunar(night) hence, 1 breath = 4 seconds (86400 seconds per day /21600 breaths per day = 4 seconds per breath)

Time : 1 naazhigai equals to 24 minutes = 1440 seconds = 360 breaths. 1 solar year = 360 days = 8640 hours. 60 naazhigai = 1 day.

In a horoscope, the placement of Planets, Yoga, Kendra or Square, Trine or Triangle and other issues are derived on this basis, could be established from the following table:

Proportion Arc sectors Degrees-Minutes Aspect/Division

21600/108 200 3d 20m Navamsha

21600/27 800 13d 20m Nakshatra

21600/12 1200 30d Raasi

21600/4 5400 90d Square

21600/3 7200 120d Triangle

21600/2 10800 180d Opposition

21600/1 21600 360d Conjunction

Further, Books written 1. by Sri varaahamihiraa like 'bruhad jaatakam, paraasarahora Saastram, daivajya vallabhaa', 2. by gargaachaariyaa, 'garga horaa' 3. by mantreshvaraa, 'phalateepikaa', 4. by vekatesa daivankar, 'sarvaartta sintaama´i', 5. by satyaa chaaryaa, 'satya jaatakam', 6. by Sukar Rishi 'Sukar naadi' , 7. by kaalidaasaa 'utra kaalaamrutam, jaataka chantrikai', 8. by maha Rishi Jaimini's 'Jaimini sutraa', 9. vaidyanaata deekshatar, 'jaataka paarijaatam', 10. by mahaadevaa, 'jaataka tatvam', 11. by Achudar, native of Kerala 'Deva Keralam known as chandra kalaa naadi, 12. by kumaara svaami Dev ' kumaara svaamyam', 13. by Sapta Rishies namely, atri, agastiyaa, jaimini, konginar, naaradaa, vasistaa, visvaamitraa, - 'sapta Rishi naadi', 14. Dr B V Raman's various books, 15. Rishi pulippaan's various books, 16. Kadalagudi Sri natesha Saastri's various books, 17. The Discoverer of krishnamurthi Paddhadi Sri. K S krishnamurthi 's various books, 18. Sri C G Raajan's various books, 19. paraasaraa Rishi's books like 'horaa, Samhitaa' and many other books will help us to enhance our knowledge in the field of mathematics and astrology. There is no doubt about this.

Veda vyaasa explains the Arithmetics (Ganita) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots are enumerated in the naarada vishu puraanaa. The Sulba sutraas of boudhaayana and Aapastamba sutraas explains the geometric knowledge (rekha-ganita) which describe the techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during various prayoga (the yajyaa.)

boudhaayana's sutraa states: "The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size." which was later popularly known as the Pythagoras theorem. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown. Examples of quadratic equations also appear. Aapastamba's sutraa (an expansion of boudhaayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2, whch is accurate upto five decimal place. He also looked at the problems of squaring a circle, dividing a segment into seven equal parts, and a solution to the general linear equation.

In Jain cosmology, space and time were considered limitless similar to the Veda Upanishad's view. anuyoga dvara sutraa explains about the Infinite numbers, law of indices and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms. Terms like ardaached, trigaached, chaturaached are used to denote log base 2, log base 3 and log base 4 respectively.. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: 1. infinite in one direction, 2. in two directions, 3. in area, 4. infinite everywhere and 5. perpetually infinite. Permutations and combinations are explained in the bhagavati sutraa and in Sathananga sutraa.

Buddhist mathematics was classified either as garnaa (Simple Mathematics) or sankhyan (Higher Mathematics) and classifying the numbers as: sankhyeyaa (countable), asankhyeyaa (uncountable) and anantaa (infinite).

Philosophical formulations concerning sunyaa - i.e. emptiness facilitated by introducing the concept of zero. While the zero (bindu) in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier, algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of brahmaguptaa during 7th Century.

In the Western world, the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle, and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. But in India, almost everything was in vouge including decimal numbers.

It was best stated by French mathematician, Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions."

brahmaguptaa describe the negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to link between trade and mathematical study. Astronomical knowledge - particularly 1. about the tides and the stars was considered very important by trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night and 2. accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops.

Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication.

One of the greatest scientists of the guptaa period - Aaryabhataa (born in 476 AD, Kusumpura, Bihar) correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth, and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses which was appreciated by bhaaskaraa I (born Saurashtra, 6th Century, and the follower of the Asmaka school of science, Nizamabad, Andhra). In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse, Aaryabhataa was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals - i.e. tatkaalika gati to designate the infinitesimal, or near instantaneous motion of the moon, and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. Aaryabhataa's equations were elaborated on by manjulaa (10th Century) and bhaaskaraachaaryaa (12th Century) who derived the differential of the sine function.

Mathematics played a vital role in Aaryabhataa's revolutionary understanding of the solar system. His calculations on pi, (or 22/7) the circumference of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year were remarkable. In making such calculations, he had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before including problems in algebra (beej ganitaa) and trigonometry (trikonmiti).

bhaaskaraa I expanded on the trigonometric equations and pi (or 22/7) provided by Aaryabhataa, and contributed 1. the important formula for calculating the sine function 2. work on indeterminate equations and 3 quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel.

Another important astronomer/mathematician was varaahamihiraa (6th Century, Ujjaini) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to Aaryabhataa's trignometric formula. His works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle.

Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. Yativrsabha's (6th Century) work tiloyapannattee gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.

In the 9th Century, mahaa veeraachaaryaa (Mysore) wrote ganita saara san grahaa, where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by brahmaguptaa)

The leading light of 12th Century Indian mathematics was bhaaskaraachaaryaa who was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjaini. He left several important mathematical texts including the leelaavati, Bijaganita and the siddhaanta siromani, (an astronomical text). He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries, and in his siddhaanta siromani he postulated that the Earth had gravitational force, and mention for the first time the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. In the second part of this treatise, there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and its properties and applications to geography, planetary mean motion, eccentric epicyclical model of the planets, first visibility of the planets, the seasons, the lunar crescent etc. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry and also explains his trigonometric equations: sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b; sin(a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b;

Now, we can understand, the above Mathematical knowledge is necessary to produce an Almanac (Panchanga) which we are using now or to cast a Horoscope.

To render/do the remedy (Pariharam), and to worship the Deity, Planets, Stars to get our desire, Veda, jyotshaa provide details on everything (like Deity, Planets, Stones). Even in taittireeya Samhitaa, 4th kaandaa, 4th Prasna, 10th anuvaakaa gives particulars about Stars and its respective Deities and 11th anuvaakaa gives particulars about Month, Rutu etc. (explained in the Table given below)

Stars Star's Deity Planet Planet's Deity Stones

Aswini Aswini Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Bharani Yama Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Kritika Agni Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Rohini Prajapati Moon Paarvati Pearl

Mrugasirsa Soma Mars Subramanya Coral

Arudra Rudra Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

Punarvasu Adhiti Jupiter DakshinaMoorti, Brahma Topaz

Pushyami Brahaspati Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Aslasha Snake(Sarpa) Mercury Vishnu Emerald

Magha Fore fathers (Pitru's) Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Poorvaphalguni Aryama Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Uthara Bhaga Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Hastha Savita Moon Paarvati Pearl

Chithira Indra Mars Subramanya Coral

Swathi Vayu Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

ViSaaka Indra, Agni Jupiter DakshinaMoorti,Brahma Topaz

Anuradha Mitra Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Jyestha Indra Mercury Vishnu Emerald

Moola Fore fathers (Pitru's) Ketu Ganesha Lapis Lazuli

Poorva Shada Varuna Venus Lakshmi, Indra Diamond

Uthra Shada Vishvedeva Sun Shiva Carbuncle

Abhijit * Brahma

Sravana Vishnu Moon Paarvati Pearl

Dhanishya Vasu Mars Subramanya Coral

Satha Bishak Indra Rahu Durga, Kali Sardonyx

Poorva Bradra One Foot Goat Jupiter DakshinaMoorti, Brahma Topaz

Utra Shada Adiseshan Saturn Sasta, Yama Sapphire

Revati Poosha Mercury Vishnu Emerald

* Abhijit Star is mentioned in Veda, but not practised in Astrology.

The vedanga jyotshaa includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the gem-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body ( the head), similarly, the position of Ganita ( mathematics) is the highest amongst all branches of the Veda s and the Shastras."

mahaaveeraachaaryaa (Jain mathematician from Mysore) emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world, cannot be understood without the base of Ganita ( mathematics)".)

As a finance professional and an astrologer, I am also of the view ''Every performance or action shall end with number'' (including Balance Sheet in Commerce / Accounts)

Like this, we can explain and establish the connection between the Veda , the Cosmic world and with individual Horoscope and daily operation of human being through Maths (Ghanita). But due to the time and place constraint, I would like to make a pause on this topic.

f. Kalpa - deals with the procedural aspects of Vedic karmas or Vedic Actions.(Arms of Veda ) Kalpam could be classified into four as 1. Srouta sutraa, 2. gruhya sutraa, 3. dharma sutraa and 4. Sulba sutraa. Kalpa sutraa was written by 1. Aashvalaayanaa, 2. boudhaayanaa, 3. Aapastambaa, 4. satyaashaadhaa, 5. kaatyaayanaa, 6. draahyaayanaa. Gruhya sutraa (meant for smaartta karmaa) clarifies about 1. garbhaa dhaanaa 2. naamakarmaa 3. upanishkramanaa, 4. annapraasanaa, 5. karna vedhanaa, 6. chaulaa 7. upanayanaa, 8. vedavrataa, 9. vivaaha (Marriage) and 10. pitru medha samskaaraa (last rituals) etc. Srouta sutraa (meant for havir yajyaa) clarifies on 1. agniyaadheyaa, 2. agnihotraa, 3. darsa purnamaasau, 4. Aagrayanaa, 5. Chaaturmaasyaa, 6. niruda pasubandhaa, 7. sautraamani. Further it clarifies on yajyaa based on soma samstas like 1. agnishtomaa, 2. atyagnishtomaa, 3. ukthyaa, 4. Shodasee, 5. vaajapeyam, 6. atiraatraa, 7. aptoryaamaa etc. Dharma sutraa provides particulars on 1. varnaasrama dharmaa (Proof of Varnashrama), 2. niyamaa (control), 3. Aapaddharmaa, (relaxation) and 4. praayacittaa, (remedy). Sulba sutraa explains about the yajya vedi, kundaa, mandaapaa, Vessels, measurement of samit & darbhaa, and citi which are required to perform above Karma.

Veda Upangas (secondary organs of the Vedas) :

1. Mimamsa, deals with the action and knowledge based on interpretations of the Vedic texts

2. Nyaya, deals with logic

3. Purana deal with mythology and serve as a magnifying glass of the Vedic Injunctions, and

4. Dharma Sastra deals with the Vedic codes of conduct.

These fourteen texts (Veda -4, Vedanga -6 and Veda Upanga -4) are glorified as vidyasthanas - the house of true knowledge and wisdom.

All the Vedas provide the same knowledge to experience the Supreme through different paths.

a. The Rig Vedi would approach this goal through prayer and intellectual pursuits.

b. The Yajur Vedi through Yajyaa and invocation of Agni to carry the message of the hymns to the Supreme.

c. The Saama Vedi through musical renderings of the hymns

d. The Atharva Vedi through tantra or other rituals.

The Vedas promote and accept all forms of religious practice in the pursuit of understanding and merging with the Supreme. Hence it is highly secular and tolerant in its teachings and/or preaching.

Without resort to in writing, our forefathers had devised many ways and different methods to keep it error free and to recite with correct pronunciation of letters/ words, correct duration for utterance of letters/ words and correct accent/ modulation of letters by applying numerous safeguards.

How much time it should take to utter each word is indicated by resort to the notation by "maatraa" - the time it takes to pronounce a short vowel. How to regulate breathing so that the vibrations can occur at what part of the body to give birth to the pure word and sound is also laid down in the Vedanga Sikshaa. The taittireeya Upanishad, for e.g., begins with Sikshaa thus:

Seekshaam Vyakyaa syaamah - Varna Swarah - Maatraa balam - Saama Santaanah

Sikshaadeals with Varna, Svaraa, Maatraa, Strength, Saamaa and Santaanaa

Our Rishies prescribed several fool-proof methods to correctly recite the Veda mantra in various patterns and combinations known as vakhyaa, padaa, kramaa, jataa, maalaa, Sikhaa, rekhaa, dhvajaa, dandaa, rathaa and ghanaa :

Vakhya pathaa or Samhitaa pathaa is to recite the mantras in a sentence straight. When mantras come in sentences, some of the words therein have to be conjoined in chanting.

Pada Paathaa : To recite the Veda mantras, word by word, instead of joining the words. This gives the student of the Vedas, the knowledge of each word in a sentence.

Krama Paathaa : In Krama Pathaa, the first word of the mantra is added to the second, the second to the third, the third to the fourth and so on, until the whole sentence of the mantras is completed. The order of words will be 1-2 ; 2-3 ; 3-4 ; 4-5 and so on. This helps the students to understand changes occuring in swara in such a combination. The person who is well versed in reciting the Krama Paathaa is known as "Krama Vit" ( like Veda vit) When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for Krama Paathaa :

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Krama Turn (T) number (T1 to n-1)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1) ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn ;

Hence General Combination for Krama Paathaa is :

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 1, and Max No. of Turn < n (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of Krama Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

Jata Paathaa : In jata Paathaa, the first two words are first recited together and then the words are recited in a reverse order and then again in the original order. Hence, Krama + Inverse of Krama + Krama = jataa. The order will be 1-2-2-1-1-2, 2-3-3-2-2-3, 3-4-4-3-3-4, 4-5-5-4-4-5 and so on. It is to be noted, there all six padas have to be recited together with proper sandhi (junction) In jata Paathaa, there will be 5 sandhies. When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for jata Paathaa :

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Jata Turn (T) number (T1 to n-1)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2, P2, P1, P1, P2 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3, P3, P2, P2, P3 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1) ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn ; **

Hence General Combination for jata Paathaa is :

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 1, and Max No. of Turn < n (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of jata Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

Ghana paathaa : This is one of the most popular form of recitations and requires years of learning and practice by the student. A scholar proficient in recitation in this format is honored as Ghana paathi. In Ghana Paathaa the combination will be: 1-2-2-1-1-2-3-3-2-1-1-2-3

2-3-3-2-2-3-4-4-3-2-2-3-4, 3-4-4-3-3-4-5-5-4-3-3-4-5 and so on till last pada ends in that sentence. Hence, jataa + 3rd Padaa + Inverse of 3 Padaas + 3 Padaas in Straight way = Ghana Paathaa. It is to be noted, there all 13 padas have to be recited together with proper sandhi (junction) In Ghana Paathaa, there will be 12 sandhies. When the Padaa itself is a Veshtanaa, then, as soon as it leaves from its turn, we have to recite the Veshtanaa. For the last pada in a sentence also, we have to recite the Veshtanaa, whether it is a Pada Veshtanaa or not. If we express this in Mathematical series:

Mathematical Sequence, Series for Ghana Paathaa:

Sentence (S) = P1, P2, P3, ....... P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn

Ghana Turn (T) number (T1 to n-2)

Turn 1 (T1) = P1, P2, P2, P1, P1, P2, P3, P3, P2, P1, P1, P2, P3 ;

Turn 2 (T2) = P2, P3, P3, P2, P2, P3, P4, P4, P3, P2, P2, P3, P4 ;

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn ;

Turn n-1(Tn-1) = P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-1), P(n-1), Pn **

Hence General Combination for Ghana Paathaa is :

Turn n-2 (Tn-2) = P(n-2), P(n-1), P(n-1), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn, Pn, P(n-), P(n-2), P(n-2), P(n-1), Pn ;

where, n > 2, and Max No. of Turn < n-1 (without any Veshtanaa)

Pn = nth Padaa in a Sentence

Tn = Turn of Ghana Paathaa

n = Number of Padaa in a Sentence

When a sentence has more than 4 words (Padaas), then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 10 times and last but one 11 times, and last padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence). The rest of padaas (i e from 3rd padaa to last but two will repeat for 13 times)

** We could see, even if a sentence has any number of padaa, for last two padaas, the Ghana is as same as Jataa.

When a sentence has 4 Padaas, then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 10 times, 3rd Padaa 11 times and the last (4th) Padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence).

When a sentence has 3 Padaas, then 1st Padaa repeats 5 times, 2nd Padaa 8 times, and the last (3rd) Padaa 6 times back and forth in different combinations. (except for Pada Veshtanaa and Veshtanaa for the end of the sentence).

When a sentence has only 2 padaas, then it is like Jataa Paathaa only.

When we listen to a Ghanapaathi reciting Vedas in Ghana form, we note that he repeats padaas in various ways, back and forth and in different patterns. This would be pleasant to the ears and creates a sense of happiness within. It would seem that the natural splendor of the Veda mantras is heightened, as it were. We can now appreciate the rigor, a Ghanapaathi has to go through in his education to learn, by heart, the thousands of mantras, to be able to recite in Ghana form.

The Samhita Paathaa and Pada Paathaa are called Prakrithi (or natural) Paathaas, as the words of the mantras occur in normal sequence. The rest are called Vikrithi (or artificial and not natural) Paathaas. In Krama, although the words do not occur in the natural order of one, two and three, since they do not revert like one after two and two after three, it cannot be called fully Vikrithi.

The Vikrithis are eight in number:

jataa maalaa sikhaa rekhaa dhvajo dando ratho ghana :

ashtau vikrtaya : proktaa ; kramapoorvaa maharshibhi :

jataa, maalaa, sikhaa, rekhaa, dhvaa dandaa, rathaa, ghanaa

Two types of maalaa (garland) exist: (a) krama maalaa and (b) pusha maalaa. This is similar to krama paathaa in that two-word units with the characteristic overlapping are the foundation. Sikaa (top knot) is similar to jataa except that, third word will be combined at the end of jataa. Recitations in rekhaa (row), dhvajaa (flag), dandaa (Rod), and rathaa (chariot) are more complex and the learner/reader should get advice from pundits.

Further, there are three types of rathaa, namely, dvichakro (two wheels), trichakro (three wheels) and chatuschakro (4 wheels). Each wheel corresponds to a part of a verse (Rik) of the text.

By repeating the words in manifold ways, the correct tally of the words was also kept which naturally ensure the purity of the texts. It is also believed that higher merits (punya) accompany greater complexities in chanting – for example, a Ghana recitation is several orders higher in merit (infinite) than jataa recitation,(1000 units) which is higher in merit than krama recitation (4 times), Padaa recitation 2 times the punya (or merit or phala) of Samhitaa recitation.

Sri Rudra

Introduction Note:

veda meka gunam japtvaa tadahnaiva visudhyati

Rudraikaa dasineem japtvaa tatkshanaa deva sudhyati

By reciting Veda once, he becomes pure on that day. But by reciting Rudra the very next moment he gets purified.

Sri Rudra, also called Sata Rudreeyam, is considered an Upanishad, one of 108 Upanishads. It is made up of two hymns, called Namakaa and Chamakaa. In the namakaa hymn, every verse begins with "namo" or "salutation". In the camaka hymn, every verse contains the phrases "chame ", meaning ‘and me’.

Sri Rudra occurs in the middle of the taittireeya samhitaa of Sri krishna yajur Veda with total of 169 mantraas in the 4th kandaa, 5th Prasna, in 11 Anuvakas is always followed by the 11 anuvaakaas of Chamakaa found in the 7th Prasna in 4th kaandaa. Many times salutations are offered in Sri Rudra and God is always pleased with repeated namaskaaraas. An analysis of Pada Paathaa of 11 anuvaakaas containing 1234 Padas are given in a separate table showing most repeated Pada and its occurrence in each anuvaakaas. Rudra in these hymns is not a sectarian deity, but the supreme Lord in several forms enlightening, His omnipresence, omnipotence, omniscience and the Lord of evolution who continuously guides the universe from one level of perfection to the higher one.

It is the only hymn of its kind in the religious literature of the entire world which focuses on the idea of God, not only associated with the ideas of pleasant and good, but also with the idea of dread and destruction. i.e., that the God permeates everything in manifestation, including aspects deemed not ethical by the purists and fault-finders.

Various meanings are given to Rudra, derived from the meanings of its roots namely "ru", to cry or to teach, "rud", to make a person weep, and "dra" to flow. Hence Rudra is considered as a deity who teaches the supreme knowledge to all; another meaning is, he whose energy flows in everything.

Sri Rudra is a solution or remedy for removal of the five mahaa patakaa (sins). Sri Rudram is great because it contains the holiest of the holy panchaaksharaa (five letter) Mantraa "Nama : Sivaya " Thus Rudram and Chamakam leads one from Sakamaa to Nishkaamaa. Rudra is (Siva), Agni Swarupa. It is stated that people desirous of all auspicious things have to worship the Agni Svarupa Rudra through Japa, Homa, Abhiseka and Archana.

By watering the tree at the base of the trunk all the parts of the tree including branches, leaves, fruits etc are strengthened. In the same way by worshipping Siva (1) all his related Devas will be pleased and one will get both the earthly and heavenly benefits including liberation. (2) all the evil manifestations in the neighbourhood and in the village premises will be driven of, (3) all worries/ sorrows will be removed in the entire area.

Vedas, the source of learning is supreme. Next is Rudra Ekadasi in Vedas. “Nama : Sivaya” in Rudram is supreme and in this, the two letter "Siva" is par excellence. When Rudra is recited 121 times (112) it is "Rudra Ekadasi", 1331 times (113) it is "Mahaa Rudra", 14641 times (114) it is "Ati Rudra".

Benefits of Abhisheka and Rudra Japa

Rudra is to be repeated after performing the initial Sankalpa, Puja, Nyasa, Anga. Panchamruta snana and Dhyana. The Benefits of Rudra Japa are shown below:

No.of Japa Benefits of Japa

1 Rudra Freedom from Bala arishta ( Childhood diseases)

3 Rudra Freedom from imminent difficulties with which one is faced.

5 Rudra Freedom from the evil effects of certain planets occupying unfavourable positions.

7 Rudra Freedom from great fear.

9 Rudra The fruit of one Vajapeya sacrifice; and also attainment of peace of mind.

11 Rudra Getting the favour of kings and great wealth.

33 Rudra Attainment of wishes for objects and having no enemies.

77 Rudra Enjoyment of great happiness.

99 Rudra Attainment of son, grandson, wealth, grain, Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha and freedom from death.

1 Maha Rudra Attainment of the favour of kings and becoming the Lord of great wealth.

3 Maha Rudra Fulfilment of impossible tasks.

5 MahaRudra Acquirement of vast lands.

7 Maha Rudra Attainment of the seven worlds.

9 Maha Rudra Freedom from births and deaths.

1 AtiRudra Becoming God.

Materials for Abhisheka: Pure water, milk, sugarcane juice, ghee, honey, waters of sacred rivers, sea water.

For getting rain, Abhisheka should be done with pure water. For freedom from diseases, and for begetting a son, Abhisheka should be done with milk. If Abhisheka is done with milk, even a barren woman begets children. The person also attains plenty of cows. If Abhisheka is done with Koorcha (with darba) water, one becomes free from all diseases. He who desires wealth, should perform Abhisheka with ghee, honey and sugarcane juice. He who desires Moksha, should do Abhisheka with sacred waters.

This book provides samhita, Pada and Ghana Paathaa of Shri Rudra. (Kindly read the note, about the Book). I will be much obliged to the readers, for their valuable feed back, in rectifying the book, in case they find any errors. Though utmost care has been taken during preparation, I sincerely regret for any errors, that might have occurred or appearing in this book, and request the readers not to consider it seriously with their nobility.

Those who are learning with the help of this book, could approach the Vedic scholars for correct pronounciation, maatraa, svaraa etc. It is important to note, learning through Guru (teacher) with due respect would be permanent and good to us, as advised by our forefathers.

By learning Vedas, one will be able to discriminate between the permanent and the impermanent. Behold the Self in all beings, in all objects. To realise, that the names and forms are illusory. Fix the mind on the Self when at work. This is the essence of the teachings of the Vedas. Put these things in practice in the daily battle of life. You will shine as a dynamic person /Yogi or even a Jeevanmukta. There is no doubt about this. Good Luck.

yo rudro - agnau yo - apsuya oshadheeshu yo rudro visvaa bhuvanaa vivesa tasmai rudraaya namo - astu

We bow to Sri Rudra who is present in fire, in water, in trees and plants and pervaded in the entire universe.

Pancha Rudra

Introduction Note:

Pancha Rudra is a collection of hymns on Rudra from various parts of Rig Veda. Generally the hymns of the Rig Veda praise the gods and ask them for worldly benefits such as wealth, health, long life, protection, and victory etc. Like this even Pancha Rudra Mantra asks Rudra for all benefits required by any human being. Unlike Sri Rudra from taittireeya samhitaa of Sri krishna Yajur Veda which are continuous and from particular kaandaa (4th) and Particular Prasna (5th) etc, Pancha Rudra hymns (consists of 5 suktaas) are taken from different ashtakaa, adhyaayaa etc. which could be seen from a separate table given to the readers for their appreciation. Apart from this, some Mantras has 'Rudra" as Padaas, and are also recited as a custom which form part of Pancha Rudra are also included in this book. Pancha Rudra represent the five faces of Rudra (Siva):

The five mukhas (faces) of Lord Siva are -

(1) Sadyojatam (West); (2) vaamadevam (North); (3) aghora (South); (4) tatpurusha (East) and (5) Eesaana (Oordvaa - looking up).

Reciting Rig Veda Ghana would be melodious to ears and please God to arrive at the place of Recitation. Hence, normally Rig Vedic Pundit will chant mantras first in all occasions including yagyas.

It was my long desire to provide Ghana Paathaa in script form to people, who, either did not have opportunity to pursue formal Vedic studies or has not reached Vikruti Paathaa during their studies, but have enthusiasm to recite some part of Ghana paathaa. Now a days, finding Rig Vedic Ghanapathies is a very difficult task due to its enormous portion in Samhita itself, and different kinds of rules (Lakshanaa) for Vikruti Paathaa text. Hence to become Ghanapathi in this Veda would take more years than other Veda Saakas.

I hope this book will be a guide to the readers to understand the concept of Ghana and its Sandhi. Moreover, few Mantras (Riks) in Pancha Rudram and Sri Rudram are also common, hence, the readers would be able to appreciate the difference in pronounciation of the same text in different Saakas.

This book provides samhita, Pada and Ghana Paathaa of Pancha Rudram. (Kindly read the note, about the Book).

ayam mey hasto bhagavaa nayam mey bhaga vattara :

ayam mey visva bhesha joyam sivabhi marshana :

This, my hand is God. Is it? No, No, better than God. Why? This is Medicine to me and to all living being because, this hand is worshiping God to get Liberation.